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U.S. History Ch. 1-5

Aztecs A warrior people who dominated the Valley of Mexico from about 1100 until their conquest in 1519
Culture areas Geographical regions inhabited by peoples who share similar basic patterns of subsistence and social organization.
Cahokia Located near modern St. Louis, this was one of the largest urban centers created by Mississippian peoples, containing perhaps 30,000 residents in 1250.
Great League of Peace and Power Confederation of five Iroguois nations
Songhai empire A powerful West African state that flourished between 1450 and 1591, when it fell to a Moroccan invasion.
Reconquista The long struggle (ending in 1492) during which Spanish Christians reconquered the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim occupiers, who first invaded in the eighth century.
Reformation Sixteenth
Protestants Europeans who supported reform of the Catholic Church in the wake of Martin Luther's critique of the Church.
Predestination The belief that God decided at the moment of Creation which humans would achieve salvation.
Columbian exchange The transatlantic exchange of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred after the first European contact with the Americas.
Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty negotiated by the pope in 1494 to resolve the territorial claims of Spain and Portugal.
Coureurs de bois French for "woods runner," an independent fur trader in New France.
Indentured servant An individual—usually male but occasionally female—who contracted to serve a master for a period of four to seven years in return for payment of the servant's passage to America.
Quakers Members of the Society of Friends, a radical religious group that arose in the mid
Joint stock company Business enterprise in which a group of stockholders pooled their money to engage in trade or to fund colonizing expeditions. Joint
Headright system A system of land distribution during early colonial era that granted settlers fifty acres for themselves and another fifty for each "head" (or person) they brought to the colony.
House of Burgesses The legislature of colonial Virginia. First organized in 1619, it was the first institution of representative government in the English colonies.
Proprietary colony A colony created when the English monarch granted a huge tract of land to an individual or group of individuals, who became "lords proprietor."
Puritans Individuals who believed that Queen Elizabeth's reforms of the Church of England had not gone far enough in improving the church, particularly in ensuring that church members were among the saved.
Act for Religious Toleration The first law in America to call for freedom of worship for all Christians. It was enacted in Maryland in 1649 to quell disputes between Catholics and Protestants, but it failed to bring peace.
Anglican Of or belonging to the Church of England, a Protestant denomination.
Separatists Members of an offshoot branch of Puritanism. Separatists believed that the Church of England was too corrupt to be reformed and hence were convinced that they must "separate" from it to save their souls. Separatists helped found Plymouth Colony.
Pilgrims Settlers of Plymouth Colony, who viewed themselves as spiritual wanderers.
Covenant A formal agreement or contract.
Pequot War Conflict between English settlers (who had Narragansett and Mohegan allies) and Pequot Indians over control of land and trade in eastern Connecticut.
Slave codes Sometimes known as "black codes." A series of laws passed mainly in the southern colonies in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries to define the status of slaves and codify the denial of basic civil rights to them.
Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina A complex plan for organizing the colony of Carolina, drafted in 1669 by Anthony Ashley Cooper and John Locke.
Frame of Government William Penn's 1682 plan for the government of Pennsylvania, which created a relatively weak legislature and strong executive. It also contained a provision for religious freedom.
Encomienda In the Spanish colonies, the grant to a Spanish settler of a certain number of Indian subjects, who would pay him tribute in goods and labor.
Repartimiento In the Spanish colonies, the assignment of Indian workers to labor on public works projects.
Rescate Procedure by which Spanish colonists would pay ransom to free Indians captured by rival natives. The rescued Indians then became workers in Spanish households.
King Philip's War Conflict in New England (1675
Beaver Wars Series of bloody conflicts, occurring between 1640s and 1680s, during which the Iroquois fought the French and their Indian allies for control of the fur trade in eastern North America and the Great Lakes region.
Bacon's Rebellion Violent conflict in Virginia (1675
Pueblo Revolt Rebellion in 1680 of Pueblo Indians in New Mexico against their Spanish overlords, sparked by religious conflict and excessive Spanish demands for tribute.
Middle Passage The voyage between West Africa and the New World slave colonies.
Stono Rebellion Uprising in 1739 of South Carolina slaves against whites; inspired in part by Spanish officials' promise of freedom for American slaves who escaped to Florida.
Redemptioners Similar to indentured servants, except that redemptioners signed labor contracts in America rather than in Europe, as indentured servants did.
Mercantilism Economic system whereby the government intervenes in the economy for the purpose of increasing national wealth.
Enumerated products Items produced in the colonies and enumerated in acts of Parliament that could be legally shipped from the colony of origin only to specified locations, usually England and other destinations within the British Empire.
Age of Enlightenment Major intellectual movement occurring in Western Europe in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Inspired by recent scientific advances, thinkers emphasized the role of human reason in understanding the world and directing its events. Their
Halfway Covenant Plan adopted in 1662 by New England clergy to deal with the problem of declining church membership. It allowed adults who had been baptized because their parents were church members but who had not yet experienced conversion to have their own children bap
Great Awakening Tremendous religious revival in colonial America.
New Lights People who experienced conversion during the revivals of the Great Awakening.
Dominion of New England James II's failed plan of 1686 to combine eight northern colonies into a single large province, to be governed by a royal appointee (Sir Edmund Andros) with an appointed council but no elective assembly.
Glorious Revolution Bloodless revolt that occurred in England in 1688 when parliamentary leaders invited William of Orange, a Protestant, to assume the English throne and James II fled to France.
Virtual representation The notion, current in eighteenth
Actual representation The practice whereby elected representatives normally reside in their districts and are directly responsive to local interests.
Country (Real Whig) ideology Strain of thought first appearing in England in the late seventeenth century in response to the growth of governmental power and a national debt.
Grand Settlement of 1701 Separate peace treaties negotiated by Iroquois diplomats at Montreal and Albany that marked the beginning of Iroquois neutrality in conflicts between the French and the British in North America.
Treaty of Lancaster Negotiation in 1744 whereby Iroquois chiefs sold Virginia land speculators the right to trade at the Forks of the Ohio.
Albany Plan of Union Plan put forward in 1754 by Massachusetts governor William Shirley, Benjamin Franklin, and other colonial leaders, calling for an intercolonial union to manage defense and Indian affairs.
French and Indian War The last of the Anglo
Proclamation of 1763 Royal proclamation setting the boundary known as the Proclamation Line.
Quartering Acts Acts of Parliament requiring colonial legislatures to provide supplies and quarters for the troops stationed in America.
Sugar Act Law passed in 1764 to raise revenue in the American colonies.
British Constitution The principles, procedures, and precedents that governed the operation of the British government. These could be found in no single written document.
Sovereignty The supreme authority of the state, including both the right to take life and to tax.
Stamp Act Law passed by Parliament in 1765 to raise revenue in America by requiring taxed, stamped paper for legal documents, publications, and playing cards.
Stamp Act Congress October 1765 meeting of delegates sent by nine colonies, held in New York City, that adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances and petitioned against the Stamp Act.
Sons of Liberty Secret organizations in the colonies formed to oppose the Stamp Act.
Declaratory Act Law passed in 1766 to accompany repeal of the Stamp Act that stated that Parliament had the authority to legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever."
Townshend Duty Act of 1967 Act of Parliament, passed in 1767, imposing duties on colonial tea, lead, paint, paper, and glass. Designed to take advantage of the supposed American distinction between internal and external taxes, the Townshend duties were to help support government in
Nonimportation movement A tactical means of putting economic pressure on Britain by refusing to buy its exports to the colonies.
Boston Massacre After months of increasing friction between townspeople and the British troops stationed in the city, on March 5,1770, British troops fired on American civilians in Boston.
Committees of Correspondence Committees formed in Massachusetts and other colonies in the pre
Regulators Vigilante groups active in the 1760s and 1770s in the western parts of North and South Carolina. In both cases, westerners lacked sufficient representation in the legislature to obtain immediate redress of their grievances.
Tea Act of 1773 Act of Parliament that permitted the East India Company to sell tea through agents in America without paying the duty customarily collected in Britain, thus reducing the retail price.
Coercive Acts Legislation passed by Parliament in 1774; included the Boston Port Act, the Massachusetts Government Act, the Administration of Justice Act, and the Quartering Act of 1774.
Quebec Act Law passed by Parliament in 1774 that provided an appointed government for Canada, enlarged the boundaries of Quebec southward to the Ohio River, and confirmed the privileges of the Catholic Church. Alarmed Americans termed this act and the Coercive Acts
Intolerable Acts American term for the Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act.
Suffolk Resolves Militant resolves adopted in September 1774 in response to the Coercive Acts by representatives from the towns in Suffolk County, Massachusetts, including Boston.
First Continental Congress Meeting of delegates from most of the colonies held in 1774 in response to the Coercive Acts. The Congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, and agreed to establish the Continental Association to put economic
Continental Association Agreement, adopted by the First Continental Congress in 1774 in response to the Coercive Acts, to cut off trade with Britain until the objectionable measures were repealed. Local committees were established to enforce the provisions of the association.
Whigs The name used by advocates of colonial resistance to British measures during the 1760s and 1770s. The Whig party in England unsuccessfully attempted to exclude the Catholic duke of York from succession to the throne as James II; victorious in the Glorious
Tories A derisive term applied to loyalists in America who supported the king and Parliament just before and during the American Revolution.
Created by: drew610
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