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Unit 4

Course 5011

TermDefinition
The Law of Effect Organisms learn through the consequences of their actions.
Edward Lee Thorndike The Law of Effect
Burrhus Frederick Skinner The Experimental Analysis of Behavior The Operant Chamber (“Skinner Box”) Principles of Operant Conditioning Radical Behaviorism Analysis of Verbal Behavior The Cumulative Recorder Programmed Instruction
Operant Behavior Behavior that has an effect on the environment and is primarily under the control of its consequences.
Operant selection This process of behavioral variability, selection by consequences, and behavioral reproduction occurs throughout the organism’s lifetime.
Simplest type of operant contingency R-S (Response-Stimulus)
Reinforcement An environmental change that follows a response and increases or maintains the future frequency of that behavior.
Punishment Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
Positive reinforcement An environmental change in which a stimulus is added (presented) or magnified following a response, that increases or maintains the future frequency of that response.
Negative reinforcement An environmental change in which a stimulus is subtracted (withdrawn or removed) or attenuated following a response, and which increases or maintains the future frequency of that behavior.
SR+ Unconditioned Positive Reinforcement
Sr+ Conditioned Positive Reinforcement
SR- Unconditioned Negative Reinforcement
Sr- Conditioned Negative Reinforcement
SP+ Unconditioned Positive Punishment
SP- Unconditioned Negative Punishment
Sp- Conditioned Negative Punishment
Extinction The discontinuing of a reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior.
Automaticity Behavior is modified by its consequences irrespective of the person’s awareness.
Premack Principle If the opportunity to engage in a “preferred” or “high-probability” behavior is made contingent on engaging in a “less preferred” behavior, the future duration or frequency of the “less preferred” behavior will increase.
Reinforcer A stimulus that, when presented following a response, increases or maintains the future frequency of that response.
Unconditioned Reinforcer A stimulus that, usually, is reinforcing without any prior learning; that is, its effect is due to phylogenic provenance.
Conditioned Reinforcer A stimulus that initially has no innate reinforcing properties, but acquires reinforcing properties through pairing with unconditioned reinforcers or powerful conditioned reinforcers.
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer A conditioned reinforcer that has been paired with a variety of other reinforcers and which is effective for a wide range of behaviors.
Escape Behavior that terminates an aversive stimulus.
Avoidance Terminates a “warning” stimulus; prevents or delays the onset of the aversive stimulus.
warning stimulus A conditioned aversive stimulus whose presence is correlated with the upcoming onset of an unconditioned aversive stimulus.
unsignaled avoidance No clear warning stimulus, but a response can still delay or prevent the occurrence of the aversive event.
Automatic Reinforcement The response itself directly produces the reinforcing consequence. That is, the consequence is NOT mediated by another person.
Socially Mediated Reinforcement The consequence is mediated by another person.
Planned reinforcement A person explicitly arranged the contingency.
Unplanned reinforcement The contingency was not explicitly arranged.
Operant Extinction The process by which a previously reinforced behavior is weakened by withholding reinforcement.
Operant Spontaneous Recovery The sudden and temporary reappearance of a behavior following extinction.
Resurgence The reappearance of a previously extinguished behavior during the extinction of a more recently reinforced behavior.
Unconditioned Punisher A stimulus that, usually, is punishing without any prior learning; that is, its effect is due to phylogenic provenance (genetics).
Conditioned Punisher A stimulus that initially has no innate punishing properties, but acquires punishing properties through pairing with unconditioned punishers or powerful conditioned punishers.
Positive Punishment An environmental change in which a stimulus is added (presented) or magnified following a response, that decreases the future frequency of that response.
Negative Punishment An environmental change in which a stimulus is subtracted (withdrawn, removed) or attenuated following a response, which decreases the future frequency of that behavior.
Time-out from positive reinforcement A procedure based on the principle of negative punishment; the organism cannot access (generally specified) reinforcers.
Recovery from Punishment The process by which a previously punished behavior is strengthened by withholding punishment.
Created by: LadyTEACH86
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