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Texes Social Studies

Review of World History-up to 1200

World CivilizationEvents
Geography's Role on History First Civilizations emerged along rivers and other water sources-Farming was the Neolithic Revolution. Humans blessed with good water and soil, were able to spend less time hunting for food and more time inventing/plows/ships with sails-technology
Early Civilization Connected directly or indirectly through trade. As groups interacted ideas were diffused(adopted) 1. Religion, 2. Language, 3. Writing systems/alphabets,4.weapons and tools, 5. Legal codes and customs.
Ancient World civilizations demonstrated how innovative humans can be
Ancient World civilizations-Hummurabi's Code first known written law code. Hammurabi ruled Babylon
Ancient World civilizations-Egyptians Built a society along the Nile River
Ancient World civilizations-Mayas The Mayas dominated Central America
Ancient World civilizations- Judaism and Christianity These two societies emerged in the middle East
Ancient World civilizations-Confucianism Oriental society stressed proper behavior and respect, this formed the foundation of social relations in China
Ancient World civilizations-Hinduism and Buddhism These two groups emerged from India
Ancient World civilizations-Han Empire The Han Empire of China was to Asia what the Roman Empire was to Europe. The Wealth of the Han came from trade along the Silk Roads
Classical civilizations-The Greeks "The Glory that was Greece"-this lines refers to the height of the Greek culture in Athens.
Classical civilizations- philosophy Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
Classical civilizations- architecture like the columns of the Parthenon
Classical civilizations- drama/theater Homer's Illiad and the Odyssey. These narrative poems were about the Trojan War which was Ancient History to the Greeks
Classical civilizations-Sculpture Idealized sculpture where men had bulging muscles
Classical civilizations-Systematic studies science, geometry and medicine
Classical civilizations-Democracy In Athens all male citizens-a very small group of landowners who could prove that both their grandfathers were citizens of Athens- met and voted directly on issues
Alexander the Great-404 BC-323 BC Brilliant Military Leader who happened to be a student of Aristotle was from Macedonia, just north of Greece. He conquered Greece as had his father along with the entire Mediterranean, North Africa and Asia Minor
Classical civilizations-The Romans "The grandeur that was Rome" refers to the height of Roman Culture. Originally had monarchs-they were overthrown in 509 BC and a republic was setup
Classical civilizations-Roman Democracy Allowed all citizens to vote for representatives to the Senate.
Classical civilizations-the Senate The Senate represented the people and made the decisions in the government.
Classical civilizations-The Roman Conquerors The Romans began to expand and conquer their neighbors
Classical civilizations-Roman Conquerors Julius Caesar conquered Gaul(France) and parts of modern day Britain. In 49 BC he returned to Rome and declared himself emperor.
Classical civilizations-Roman Conquerors2 Octavian Caesar, the adopted son of Julius, seized power after Julius was killed. He was known as Augustus and he started a dynasty of hereditary rulers.
Classical civilizations- Pax Romans Rome began a 207 year period of peace. Major contributions included spreading Greek Culture, Latin Language, roman architecture including the arch and dome, roman Laws, baths, libraries and alphabet. borrowed from greek and Phoenicians
Classical civilizations- The fall after a series of weak rulers and a series of attacks from the Huns and Germanic tribes, Rome began to crumble. Rome divided into two parts with an Eastern part centered in Constantinople (Turkey) and the Western in Rome
Last Roman Emperor The Last Roman Emperor was over thrown in 476 and the Eastern part(Byzantine) continued to thrive until 1453 when Constantinople was conquered by Muslim Conquerors.
The Middle Ages After the fall of the RE, Europe became chaotic and the Church under the Bishop of Rome(the Pope) provided basic protections that were lost with the fall of Rome.
THE HRE-Holy Roman Empire blessed the reigns of kings and dominant political power of Europe. Massive cathedrals were built to accommodate the huge numbers of religious pilgrims
Feudalism-with code of chivalry The dominant political system developed to try to protect Europe from the Viking invasions- Kings-Lords-Knights
Manorialism The economic system of the Euro Middle ages, the land was granted by the King to the Lords and Knights in exchange for military service. Serfs and peasants provided physical labor. -vast manors,artisans(blacksmiths) and a small church
Cities increased many people were skilled workers, guilds were formed to control the number of people involved in each activity, cities also became the centers of banking and manufacturing
1066-William of Normandy William (the Conqueror) defeated the english king and England as his own. He also instituted a census-the doomsday book to determine whom to tax
1095- Pope Urban II asked the kings of Europe to send knights to liberate the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks. first Crusade ended with Euro's capturing Jerusalem from the Turks. Many other crusades occurred, but Jerusalem remained under Muslim control til 20th
Italian Renaissance Italian cities increased as they served as a midway meeting point for many groups. This wealth eventually allowed the Italians to start in art and ancient literature
Crusades-The age of Exploration Euro's were exposed to goods that arrived in the Middle East along the Silk Roads from the Far East. Euros would spend the next few hundred years trying to get to East Asia without relying on the Arabs as middlemen
1215- Magna Carta Bad King John was forced by the Lords and Knights to sign the Magna Carta. Major event in the evolution of constitutionalism. Said the Power of the King was not absolute and he had to follow the law. Also set up a jury of your peers to judge.
Non-western world Europe would eventually recover, but in international trade, technology(scientific and medical advances) they remained far behind the non western world
Byzantine World Constantinople(modern Istanbul) became extremely wealthy through its control of the Dardanelles straits. they imposed tolls on all ships. Justinian most famous ruler. Laws called Justinian Code
Islamic World Islam, monotheistic religion emerged in the Arabian Peninsula in the 600's
Islamic World-Koran also spelled Quran is the major religious text of the Muslims and includes some stories from the Jewish(Noah and Moses) and Christian (Jesus) traditions
Islamic 5 pillars of faith 1. Declaration of Faith, 2.Prayer 5xday face Mecca, 3. Fasting during month of Ramadan(daytime only), 4. Alms giving(charity), 5. Hajj-pilgrimage to Mecca at least one time in each Muslims life
Mohammed assembled an army and invaded areas that had expelled him. Conquests-throughout the Arabian Peninsula, Middle East and Asia Minor. After death, tradition of religious leader being political continued. Remain united untile Sunni Shiite split
Islamic achievements Mathematics such as algebra, construction of grand palaces, Arabian nights(literature) and advanced medical progress. While euros were bleeding with leeches, Muslims were conducting surgery with anesthesia.
Eastern Asia- China China was especially advanced during this time period
Eastern Asia-China Roads Connecting Chinese cities through a series of canals and roads
Eastern Asia-Wall Building of the Great Wall of China
Eastern Asia-Education There was a great emphasis on education and the arts
Eastern Asia-Trade Extensive trade with all of Asia and the Middle East through the Silk Roads
Eastern Asia- printing A System of printing that led to numerous books
Eastern Asia-Japan developed a feudal system that greatly resembled the Euro system(they developed independently)
Eastern Asia- Power Power rested not with the emperor in Japan, Power rested with the Shoguns(the Lords) The Samurai(Knights) provided military service and the whole system was practice according to the Code of Bushido
Eastern Asia-Genghis Khan 1206-The Mongol Leader began to amass the largest land empire in History. The Great Wall of China was built to keep the Mongols out. It proved no match for Genghis Khan.
Eastern Asia-Mongol empire Included China, Russia, Korea, Poland, Persia, and India. There was a period of peace and prosperity(pax Mongolia) that lasted until 1350. The Mongols ensured safety of the trade routes.
Eastern Asia-Marco Polo It was during the Mongol rule of China that two Italian brothers visited China. over 20 years later these brothers returned to Italy and one of them Marco Polo wrote about their travels
Western Africa During this time various aspects of Africa began to prosper, two noteworthy kingdoms that emerged were Ghana and Mali. Both adopted Islam and became extremely wealthy. Trade was conducted on the Saharan Trade Routes-gold, salt, ivory, slaves
Americas-Aztecs Aztecs lived in central Mexico, created an empire through conquering their neighbors, required tribute and took 100's of prisoners to use in their elaborate human sacrifices. Had a vast trading network and centers, written language, libraries.
Americas-Incan Empire Stretched 1200 miles from north to south and was connected by a series of roads. Their society was one of the few major civilizations that never developed a written language.
Created by: Rockymento
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