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Early Explorers

Vikings As early as 9th century Vikings started exploring west. Settled in Iceland and Greenland. Two settlements established. Exploited resources settlers in Greenland needed. Named Indigenous people "Skraelings".
Vikings cont. in985 Bjarni Herjolfsson blown off course from Greenland. Leif Erikson explored west and started first settlement in Canada. Helluland(Baffin Island), Markland(Labrador), and Vinland(NewFoundLand).
Amerigo Vespucci Italian explorer hired in Spain in 1499. Discovers gulf of Mexico and establishes a North and South. Amerigo=America.
John Cabot English began exploring Westward for fish. Cabot from Italy, Henry VII hired him to find Northwest passage to Asia. Took 52 days. Returned home with furs and fish.
John Cabot cont. Tried to do a return trip but got lost at sea. 3 effects were established english claim to north coast of nova scotia, opened fish areas, helped commerce. Reaction to furs was disappointment.
Jacques Cartier 1534 French hoped to find gold and other riches in Canada. "The Land God Gave to Cain". Claims land for the french king. Donnacona's sons back to France(1534). Abundance of fish, timber, furs, and fertile land.
Second Trip 1535 Discovered St. Lawrence River and two First Nation villages Stadacona and Hochelaga. Make camp but suffer from scurvy. Tea from back of birch trees to cure scurvy.
Donnacona Treated well in France. Tells of mythical Kingdom of Sanguenay, immense gold and riches. Donnacona tells of pygmies, men who can fly, men with one leg, and those whom never eat or digest. Lied to get back home.
Third Voyage 1541 Largest of three expeditions. 10 ships with 400 sailors/ 300 soldiers/ Artisans, women, and livestock. Mission was to colonize and conquer Saguenay. Cartier second in command under Sir Jean Francis Roberval.
Third Voyage cont. Set up settlement at Cap Rouge. First Nations no longer trust Cartier and become hostile. Realizes lies. Cartier returned with fake minerals.
Third Voyage cont. again Roberval stays the winter in 1543 in Cap rouge. Iroquois attack anyone under protection. Settlers start mutiny and Roberval is called back to France for war. Cap Rouge abandoned.