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biochem chapter 7

Glycoconjugate Complex carbohydrate polymer bound/attached to protiens or lipids and act as signals that determine the intracellular location or metabolic fates of these hybrid molecules
Define Monosaccharides Simple sugars that consist of a single polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone unit
What is the most common empirical formula for carbohydrates? (CH2O)n
Define Oligosaccharides Consist of short chains of monosaccharide units or residues/ joined by characterisitc linkages called glycosidic bonds. Three or more
Define Disaccharides Two Monosaccharide units
What is one type of disaccharide? Sucrose
Define Polysaccharide Sugar polymers containing more than 20 or so monosaccharide units or even hundreds
Name one polysaccharide Cellulose/ Glycogen
What is a ketone? ROR (O is double bonded)
What is a aldehyde? RCOH (O is double bonded)
What are the two familes of monosaccharides? Aldoses and Ketoses
What is an aldose? Carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon chain (Aldehyde Group)
What is an ketose? the carbonyl group is at any other position (ketone)
Hemiacetal/Hemiketal Alcohol + Aldehyde/Ketone -> R/R/OH/OR (OR) R/H/OH/OR
Acetal/Ketal Second substitution of alcohol to give R/H/OR/OR (OR) R/R/OR/OR
Pyranose Six membered rings resembling pyran like glucose
Furanose Five membered rings resembling furan
Anomer Isomeric forms of monosaccharides that differ only in their configuration around the hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon
Mutarotation The conversion of anomers
Can a glycosidic bond be oxidized? No because it does not have a free anomeric carbon
What if the configuration of the anomeric carbon in a glycosidic linkage? Alpha
Glycans another name for polysaccharides
Homopolysaccharides Glycogen/ Starch/ Cellulose/ Chitin/ Dextrans
Why does glucose not exist in its monomeric form in the liver? The osmolarity would be increased and water would rush into the cell and burst it and the free energy for glucose uptake into the cell would be very high because of higher concentration of glucose inside the cell
Dextrans Bacterial and yeast polysaccharides
Chitin Makes up exoskeleton of many arthropods
What is the one factor that stabalized a polysaccharide? Hydrogen bonding
What are some heteropolysaccharides? Agar/ Bacterial/Algae Cell Walls/ Glycoaminoglycans
Extracellular Matrix Made of glycoaminoglycans
Proteoglycans Glycoaminoglycans attached to extracellular proteins in which the GAG is joined covalently to a protein. Major components of connective tissues such as cartilage such as heparan sulfate
Glycoaminoglycans Linear repeating disaccharide units
Glycoproteins Many oligosaccharides covalently bonded to a protein and are rich in information forming highly specific sites for recognition and high affinity binding
glycolipids Oligosaccharides and protiens which can act as specific sites for recognition
What is the function of the heparan sulfate moieties? Help module ligand interaction with receptors on cell's surface
Interactions of S domains of Heparan Sulfate 1. Conformational Activation of Protien (Binding blood clotting factor to inactive it)/ 2. Enhanced Protein-Protein interaction (Binding of AT and thrombin to adjacent domains to prevent blood clotting)/ 3. Coreceptor for Ligands (FGF receptor dimerizes)/
Factors that contribute to information richness of oligosaccharides/multitude Branched structures which are not found in protiens/nucleic acids/ modification by sulfation or acetylation. More density in information than nucleic acids
Lectins Proteisn that bind carbohydrates which serve in cell-cell recognition/ signaling and adhesion processes and intracellular targeting
Selectins Family of plasma membrane lectins that mediate cell-cell recognition and adhesion
Created by: nikeshhajari
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