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HIST 110 Final

QuestionAnswer
1st amendment The First Amendment guarantees freedoms concerning religion, expression, assembly, and the right to petition.
5th amendment No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment of a grand jury.
4th amendment The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and requires any warrant to be judicially sanctioned and supported by probable cause.
13th amendment The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
15th amendment The 15th Amendment to the Constitution granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race.
16th amendment The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census.
8th amendment The Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights (ratified December 15, 1791) prohibiting the federal government from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines, or cruel and unusual punishment.
6th amendment The Sixth Amendment (Amendment VI) to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that sets forth rights related to criminal prosecutions.
19th amendment Ratified on August 18, 1920, the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution granted American women the right to vote-a right known as woman suffrage.
18th amendment The Eighteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring illegal the production, transport and sale of alcohol (though not private possession).
17th amendment The Seventeenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution reads: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
14th amendment The 14th amendment was adopted in 1868, after the American Civil War, and addresses the equal protection and rights of former slaves.
Franklin D. Roosevelt The 32nd U.S President. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections.He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and World War II.
Great Depression A severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. In most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century.
Anti-evolution legislation Purporting to support academic freedom, supporters have contended that teachers, students, and college professors face intimidation and retaliation when discussing scientific criticisms of evolution, and therefore require protection.
Charles Darwin Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species.
Natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. The change in heritable traits of a population over time. Charles Darwin dubbed the term "natural selection".
William James Bryan United States Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1915). He resigned because of his pacifist position on World War I. Bryan was an enemy of the banks and the gold standard. Demanded "Free Silver". Prosecution in Scopes Trail.
Clarence Darrow In 1925, Darrow defended John T. Scopes in the State of Tennessee v. Scopes trial. It has often been called the "Scopes Monkey Trial."The trial pitted Darrow against William Jennings Bryan in an American court case that tested the evolution theory.
John T. Scopes John Thomas Scopes was a teacher in Dayton, Tennessee, who was charged on May 5, 1925, with violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which prohibited the teaching of evolution in Tennessee schools. He was tried in a case known as the Scopes Trial.
Fundamentalism An emphasis on purity and the desire to return to a previous ideal from which advocates believe members have strayed. Rejection of diversity of opinion as applied to these established "fundamentals"within the group is often the result of this tendency.
League of Nations The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organization founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organization whose mission was to maintain world peace.
United Nations The United Nations is an organization to promote international co-operation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the League of Nations, the organization was established after World War II in order to prevent another conflict.
World War I The First World War, the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe. The war drew in the world's economic great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Woodrow Wilson An American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. Wilson became a leading force in the Progressive Movement. He led the United States during World War I, establishing "Wilsonianism."
Equal Rights Amendment The ERA is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution to guarantee equal rights for all citizens regardless of gender; it seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce, property, employment, and other matters.
Phyllis Schlafly An American constitutional lawyer and conservative activist. She was known for her conservative social and political views, and her successful campaign against the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Declaration of Sentiments A document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men—100 out of some 300 attendees at the first women's rights convention to be organized by women. the document was the grand movement for attaining the civil, social, political, and religious rights of women.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton An American suffragist. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the Seneca Falls Convention held in 1848 is often credited with initiating the first organized women's rights and women's suffrage movements in the United States.
Seneca Falls Convention The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women's rights convention. It advertised itself as "a convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman". Held the debate over the Declaration of Sentiments.
Alice Paul An American suffragist, feminist, and women's rights activist, and one of the main leaders and strategists of the 1910s campaign for the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution,
Susan B. Anthony An American social reformer and women's rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement. She collected anti-slavery petitions at the age of 17. In 1856, she became the New York state agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Feme Covert a legal doctrine whereby, upon marriage, a woman's legal rights and obligations were subsumed by those of her husband, in accordance with the wife's legal status.
Pure Food and Drug Act The first of a series of significant consumer protection laws enacted by Congress in the 20th century and led to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration. Its main purpose was to ban traffic in adulterated or mislabeled food and drug products.
Hiram Johnson a leading American progressive and isolationist politician from California; he served as the 23rd Governor of California, and as a United States Senator from until 1945. He was Theodore Roosevelt's running mate in the election on the Bull Moose party.
Jane Addams Known as the "mother" of Social Work, was a leader in women's suffrage and world peace. She co-founded the first settlement house in the United States, Chicago's Hull House. Became the most famous settlement house in America.
Upton Sinclair An American writer who wrote nearly 100 books and other works in several genres. In 1906, Sinclair acquired fame for his classic muckraking novel The Jungle, which exposed labor and sanitary conditions in the U.S. meat packing industry. Led to Food act.
Muckraker used in the Progressive Era to characterize reform-minded American journalists who attacked established institutions and leaders as corrupt. They had large audiences in some popular magazines. In the US, the modern term is investigative journalism.
Eugenics A set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a group of individuals. The idea of a modern project of improving the human population through a statistical understanding of heredity used to encourage good breeding.
Lynching an extrajudicial punishment by an informal group. It is most often used to characterize informal public executions by a mob in order to punish an alleged transgressor, or to intimidate a group. Mostly for the free slaves in the 20th century.
Loving v. Virginia A landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme Court, which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
De Jure Segregation De Jure Segregation is racial separation which is forced by specific laws.
Plessy v. Ferguson A landmark constitutional law case of the US Supreme Court. It upheld state racial segregation laws for public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
James Byrd Jr. An African-American who was murdered by three white supremacists, in Jasper, Texas, on June 7, 1998. Inspired the Hate Crimes Prevention Act.
Jesse Washington A black teenage farmhand who was lynched in what became a well-known example of racially motivated lynching. Washington was convicted of raping and murdering Lucy Fryer, the wife of his white employer in rural Robinson, Texas.
Grandfather Clause A provision in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases. Those exempt from the new rule are said to have grandfather rights or acquired rights, or to have been grandfathered in.
Mississippi Plan The Mississippi Plan of 1875 during the Reconstruction Era in the Southern United States. It was devised by the Democratic Party in that state to the defeat Republicans in Mississippi by means of threats of violence and suppression of the black vote.
Hiram Rhodes Revels A Republican politician, and college administrator. Born free in North Carolina, he later lived and worked in Ohio, where he voted before the Civil War.
Reconstruction Era Radical Republicans in Congress sought stronger measures to upgrade the rights of African Americans, including the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, while curtailing the rights of former Confederates.
Ku Klux Klan the name of three distinct movements in the United States that have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, anti-immigration, and, especially in later iterations, Nordicism, anti-Catholicism, and anti-Semitism.
New Deal A series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938. They included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term (1933–37) of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
John Maynard Keyenes A British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. He built on and greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles.
Social Security Signed into law by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1935,[2] and the current version of the Act, as amended,[3] encompasses several social welfare and social insurance programs.
World War II A global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.
Three Non-Nuclear Principles Japan's Three Non-Nuclear Principles is a parliamentary resolution (never put into law) that have guided Japanese nuclear policy since their inception in the late 1960s. Occurred after World War II. Peaceful use, global disbarment, rely on U.S deterrent.
Hibakusha The Japanese word for the surviving victims of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The word literally translates as "explosion-affected people" and is used to refer to people who were exposed to radiation from the bombings.
Strategic bombing A military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
Fission Bombs All existing nuclear weapons derive some of their explosive energy from nuclear fission reactions. Weapons whose explosive output is exclusively from fission reactions are commonly referred to as atomic bombs or atom bombs.
Nuclear weapons testing Experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons. Throughout the twentieth century, most nations that developed nuclear weapons tested them. Used in open air, causing fallout.
Fallout The residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
Downwinders Refers to the individuals and communities in the intermountain area between the Cascade and Rocky Mountain ranges who are exposed to radioactive contamination or nuclear fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear accidents.
John Smitherman The man who worked during the Nuclear testing who got nuclear poisoning in his limbs.
Fusion Bombs A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon).
Magna Carta A charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede. The charter became part of English political life, typically renewed by each monarch in turn, although as time went by, the English Parliament passed new laws, it lost some of its significance.
Selective incorporation A legal doctrine that protects the rights, immunities and privileges of U.S. citizens from state laws. It is a product of the convoluted path taken by a debate at the heart of the Constitution itself.
Hernandez v. Texas A landmark case, "the first and only Mexican-American civil-rights case heard and decided by the United States Supreme Court during the post-World War II period." Mexicans were then included in the 14th Amendment.
Brown v. Board of Education A landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Montgomery bus boycott A seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. Where Rosa Parks was forced from the bus and she didn't move.
Little Rock Nine A group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school
Emmet Till A14-year-old African-American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955. The brutality of his murder drew attention to the long history of violent persecution of African Americans in the United States. Till became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement.
Rosa Parks an activist in the Civil Rights Movement, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". Did not give up her seat in the Montgomery bus boycott.
Martin Luther King Jr. An American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using the tactics of nonviolence and civil disobedience
Massive resistance Astrategy declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. in the Virginia General Assembly to unite white politicians and leaders in Virginia in a campaign of new state laws and policies to prevent public school desegregation
James H. Meredith A Civil Rights Movement figure, writer, political adviser and Air Force veteran. In 1962, he became the first African-American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi
Medgar Evers an American civil rights activist from Mississippi who worked to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi and to enact social justice and voting rights. He was murdered by a white supremacist and Klansman.
Bull Connor An American politician who served as an elected Commissioner of Public Safety for the city of Birmingham, Alabama, for more than two decades. He strongly opposed activities of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) One of the most important organizations of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.[1][2] It emerged from a student meeting organized by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 A landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States[5] that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Voting Rights Act of 1965 A landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
Lyndon B. Johnson An American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after serving as the 37th Vice President of the United States under President John F. Kennedy from 1961 to 1963.
Southern strategy The Republican Party's policy to gain political support in the South by appealing to the racism against African Americans harbored by many southern white voters.[
Democratic Party One of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828.
Republican Party Commonly referred to as the GOP. The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution. Founded by anti-slavery activists, modernists, ex-Whigs, and ex-Free Soilers in 1854,
Barry Goldwater An American politician and businessman who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona and the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 1964 election. Lost, but revitalized the conservative party.
Richard Nixon An American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States from 1969 until 1974, when he became the only U.S. president to resign from office. Cause of the Watergate conspiracy.
Ronald Reagan An American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Before his presidency, he was the 33rd Governor of California, from 1967 to 1975, after a career as a Hollywood actor and union leader.
Strom Thurmond An American politician who served for 48 years as a United States Senator from South Carolina. He ran for president in 1948 as the States Rights Democratic Party candidate. Became republican for his opposition of the Civil Rights Act.
Mohammed Mossadeq An Iranian politician. He was the head of a democratically elected government, holding office as the Prime Minister of Iran from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d'état aided by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency
Salvador Allende Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections
Mere Gook Rule An unofficial policy in which soldiers would not be prosecuted (or very leniently punished if prosecuted) for killing or harming Vietnamese civilians, even if the victims turned out to have no connection to the Viet Cong or to the North Vietnamese Army.
Cuban Missile Crisis Was a 13-day confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
Myth of poor immigration The prospect that all refugees are poor, when where they come from they could have been royalty.
Human Development Index Is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Chinese Exclusion Act Was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.
Manhattan Project Was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada.
Marshall Plan Was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Operation Speedy Express Was a controversial United States military operation of the Vietnam War conducted in the .The operation, led by Julian J. Ewall, was part of a US military "pacification" efforts against the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Viet Cong).
My Lai Massacure Was the Vietnam War mass killing of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968. It was committed by U.S. Army soldiers from Company C, and anything that wasn't American could be killed.
Mine Ban Treaty Aims at eliminating anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines) around the world.
Kyoto Protocol An international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,
Nativism Based on rascim, where you do not want your place to be overrun by people of different religion, color, etc.
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Created by: Alex150hero