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Biology - Genetics

General Biology

Genetics the field of biology that is devoted to the understanding of how characteristics are transmitted from parents to offspring.
Heredity The transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring.
Trait is a genetically determined variant of a characteristic, such as the color of the flower.
true-breeding a pure trait that is always seen in offspring when the parents self-pollinate.
P Generation true breeding parents
F1 generation offspring of the P generation - the first filial generation
F2 generation The second filial generation
Dominant The trait that is visible
Recessive The trait that is covered up or hidden behind the other allele
Genotype an organisms genetic makeup
allele a pair of one of the alternative forms of a gene.
Phenotype The organisms appearance.
Homozygous when both alleles are alike or the same.
Heterozygous when the two alleles in the pair are different.
probability the likelihood that a specific event will occur.
punnett square a diagram or chart that shows the probablity of the distribution of traits among offspring.
Complete dominance One allele completely dominates over another
incomplete dominance when the phenotype of an organsim is between the dominant and recessive traits.
Codominance When both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring.
dihybrid cross When two alleles for different characteristics is tracked
Monohybrid Cross When only one characterstic is tracked.
Gregor Mendel The Father of Genetics.
chromosome Threadlike structure that carries genetic information to make proteins
Pedigree A chart to show the inheritance of a trait through a family tree.
Created by: ecisneros