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Unit 2

Growth of Industry, Immigration/Growth of Cities and the Progressive Era

TermDefinition
Free Enterprise System an economy where private citizens own businesses
Mass Production produce large amounts of goods quickly and cheaply
Corporation a business that is owned by investors who buy shares of stock
Monopoly a company that controls all or nearly all the business of an industry
Trust a group of corporations run by a single board or directors - often very powerful, eliminating their competition, and seen as corrupting the government
Strikes: Strikes used by unions to win their demands from employers, such as better working conditions, higher wages, etc.
Bessemer Process a way of making strong steel at a low cost
Sherman Antitrust Act approved in 1890 - banned the formation of trusts and monopolies but was weak and not very effective
Horizontal Integration the combining of competing companies into one corporation; JD Rockefeller used this to build Standard Oil
Vertical Integration having control of all the steps required to change raw materials into finished products
Push Factors the conditions that push people to leave their homelands to permanently settle in a new country, for example, famine or religious persecution
Pull Factors the conditions that attract people to leave their homeland to settle in a new country, for example for freedom of speech or better jobs
Ethnic Group a group of people who share a common culture, often associated with groups of immigrants living together in the same sections of a city
Old Immigration were Northwestern European immigrants - earlier 1800’s 
New Immigration were Southern and Eastern Europeans and Asian immigrants - later 1800’s
Assimilation the process of becoming part of another culture, immigrant children often found it easier to adapt to a new culture and customs than did adult immigrants
Melting Pot belief that the US should accept immigrants and the immigrants should assimilate or adopt the American culture and customs instead of their own cultures and customs
Multiculturalism belief that the US has a variety of cultures, each is unique and welcomed
Growth of the Cities grew fast in the 1800’s due to industrialization and the flood of immigrants who took up residence - men came looking for jobs
Purpose of Skyscrapers they were built due to the lack of space in downtown city areas
Civil Service refers to all federal jobs (except elected positions and the armed services), one must take an exam, and only those with the highest scores are qualified to get the jobs - helped to stop the spoils system and patronage
Spoils System practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs - this practice led to corruption & later Congress established the Civil Service commission in 1883 to end this corruption
Muckrakers reporters and journalists who reported on corrupt politicians and other problems in society
Suffragist a person who campaigned for women’s right to vote such as:  Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Alice Paul
19th Amendment August 1920 - the amendment to the constitution that gave women the right to vote
Populist a political party formed in 1891 mostly by farmers & members of labor unions who demanded government help with falling farm prices, regulation of railroad rates, and free silver (more money to be put in circulation)
How were Populists & Progressives similar? both parties supported reforms in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s such as an income tax concerned with public interest
T.R. was a Progressive. What did the Progressives want?  they wanted public interest, or the good of the people, to guide government actions
16th Amendment gave Congress the power to impose an income tax 
17th Amendment called for the direct election of senators to Congress
Created by: ReetuPp1