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How did the Mongols respond to Islam when they conquered the Abbasid Caliphate? The Mongols tolerated Islam and some even converted to it.
Climate of the Tropics. Monsoons, some regions are hot and dry while others are similar to a rain forest.
How did the Sahel become the center of trade between southern and northern Africa? The camels of the Sahara could not survive in the forest, the geography of Africa was too diverse.
How did Ghana rise to power? It mandated the gold and salt trade and taxed it, had a large army.
Why did the rulers of Ghana convert to Islam? To improve trade relationships with the Arabian Peninsula and northern Africa.
What caused the decline of the Ghana? They were defeated by the Almoravids, gold supply dried up.
Similarities among African societies. (Africanity) Bantu language, animistic religions, wearing of masks to represent your group,
Discuss the importance of agriculture of the Sudonic States. Most people were farmers or fishermen, lived in small villages, farming wasn't easy due to the sandy soil, farms were small, families were large, cities formed despite the importance of farming.
How did the Mali rise to power? The Ghana fell and its founder, Sundiata, defeated the other regional war leaders in the 1200's.
How did Sundiata benefit Mali? He formed alliances, built a large army, expanded its borders, built a trading state greater than Ghana.
Significance of Timbuktu. Prosperous market city for trade, had mosques and libraries.
How did the Muslim government deal with religion? Islam was not forced onto the people, but it spread because Muslim merchants received benefits, native religions still existed.
Significance of Mansa Musa. Pilgrimage to Mecca with a large caravan, caused decline of gold's value, built mosques and madrasas, brought Muslims to Mali.
Rise of Songhai. Formed in central Niger River Valley in the 600's, capital at merchant city, Gao, gained power after the Mali's fall, prospered after a new source of gold was found.
Significance of Sunni Ali. Military commander that seized Timbuktu and Jenne.
Religion in Songhai. Leaders were Muslims, spread Islam through mosques and libraries.
Downfall of Songhai. Army from Morocco was technologically advanced and the Songhai did not have gunpowder.
Significance of the Swahili States. Centers for Islam, connected Sub-Saharan Africa to the long distance trade networks of the eastern hemisphere.
Significance of the Swahili Coast. Similar to the Swahili States but in eastern Africa, center of Islam and trade, spoke Swahili.
How did the Swahili language form? Bantu speaking people came to Africa and combined with the Arabic language to form Swahili.
What was African long distance trade like? They traded with China and India, main export was gold from Great Zimbabwe, established wealthy cities.
What were some similarities between all of the Sudanic States? All were led by a patriarchy or group of elders, leaders converted to Islam but some subjects stayed loyal to their initial religions, oral story tellers (griots).
Why did many Africans along the Swahili Coast and Sudanic States convert to Islam? Married Muslims and raised their children as Muslims, made trading with Arabs easier.
What were African cities like? They had many mosques, plumbing systems, fine clothing, cities were all connected through trade but there was no central leader that controlled all of them.
What was the significance of Great Zimbabwe? Great source of gold, had large walls, controlled trade, did not convert to Islam, along with the rest of South Africa.
Significance of Ethiopia. Were Christians and not Muslims, Christianity was brought there by the Kingdom of Axum, cut off from the rest of Christian lands by the Muslims, had different beliefs from European Christians (amulets, evil spirits), Islam took some of these traditions.
Why did the Muslims choose to spread Islam to India? They were politically fragmented after the fall of the Gupta Empire.
How did the Muslims make the other religions of India less common? Led by Mahmud of Ghazni, they robbed Hindu and Buddhist temples, built mosques, formed the Delhi Sultanate.
Significance of the Delhi Sultanate. First Muslim Empire to be established in India that wasn't an extension of another, large armies, wanted to convert northern India to Islam but did not push as hard with the south.
How did Islam spread through out India? Religious toleration, Buddhism decreased, formed Muslim communities, merchants converted for trade, welcome lower caste members, no tax, marriages.
How did Hindus view Islam? Most Hindus belonged to the upper caste, saw Islam as inferior, socially separated, believed Islam would eventually go away or become a part of Hinduism.
How did India alter Islam? Took on Indian culture, such as food and clothing, kept high caste Hindus near the top, had distinct social classes based on caste system.
Major differences between Hinduism and Islam. Islam- equality, monotheism Hinduism- caste system, polytheism
What made Hindus despise Muslims? They realized that they were too different to combine, did not agree with their habits
Differences between Islam spread in Africa and India. Africa- Elites converted to Islam, toleration India- Resistance from elites, Hindus believed they were superior, tension
Why was Southeast Asia a crossroads for diverse people? It was located on the trading routes and travelers passed through there.
Diasporic communities. People from China, India, and the Arabian Peninsula brought their religions and customs to southeast Asia.
What religions were popular in southeast Asia? Buddhism and Hinduism were popular into Islam began spreading rapidly in the 1200's when the Shrivijaya fell. (They were Buddhists)
How did Islam spread in southeast Asia? Conversions were voluntary, when trading cities started converting others followed, head tax, Malacca became a cultural spreader and trading city.
What made trading revive itself in the 600's? Pax Mongolica and Dar-al-Islam.
Marco Polo. Visited China in the 1200's and returned to Europe with a journal of his travels, made Europe interested in exploration.
Ibn Battuta. Visited the Muslim tropics in the 1300's, kept a journal, shows how Islam served as a glue among diverse lands., criticized non-Muslims.
What were the ways long distance trade took place? Along the Silk Road, through the Sahara Desert, or across the Indian Ocean.
What were some motivations for travel? Trade, political diplomacy, and missionary activity.
Effects of long distance trade. Technological and agriculture diffusion (magnetic compass), spread of disease (Black Death), urbanization (Timbuktu).
Communal cities. Cities that represent their surrounding culture, example is Paris.
Convergent cities. Places where people of many different cultures come together and cultural diffusion occurs, example is Islamic cities .
Created by: emarciante9
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