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ch 47 micro

Parasite Lab Methods

Parasites of humans are classified into how many divisions? 6
Name the 6 divisions of human parasites protozoa, nematoda, platyhelminthes, pentastomids, acanthocephala, arthropoda
name the 6 types of protozoa amebae, flagellates, ciliates, sporozoans, coccidia, microsporidia
nematodes are also known as roundworms
playthelminthes are also known as flatworms
pentastomids are also known as tongue worms
acanthocephala are also known as thorn or hook worms
arthropoda consist of insects, spiders, mites or ticks
How many routes of transmission are there in human parasites? 4
Name the routes of transmission of parasites in humans 1. venereal, 2. ingestion of contaminated food or water, 3. skin penetration of infective larvae, 4. bites of various arthropods
Name 3 arthropods of human parasiticsm plasmodium, trypanosoma, leishmania
Name 3 human parasites of skin penetration of infective larvae Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm, schistosomes
Name 2 parasites of contaminated food and water Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp.
name of a parasite transmitted venereally Trichomonas vaginalis
transmission of cryptosporidium spp ingestion of contaminated food and water
transmission of Giardia lamblia ingestion of contaminated food and water
transmission of hookworm skin penetration of infective larvae
transmission of leishmania arthropod bite
transmission of schistosomes skin penetration of infective larvae
transmission of plasmodium bite of arthropod
transmission of strongyloides stercoralis skin penetration of infective larvae
transmission of trichomonas vaginalis venereal
transmission of trypanosoma arthropod bite
protozoa causes vaginitis Trichomonas vaginalis
Stronglyloides stercoralis and hookworm are intestinal worms
Schistosomes is a blood fluke
plasmodium is the vector of malaria
vector is the fly, causes sleeping sickness Trypanosoma
vector is the sand fly Leishmania
Mulitplication and propagation stage, the obligate stage in the life cycle spore
Motile, dividing, metabolizing, very active stage Trophozoite
Thick walled stageof coccidian parasites. Shed into the feces of people infected. sexual reproductive stage can be sporulated. Oocyst
(Not egg or spore) hibernates, parasitic stage responsible for disease, transmission, a resting and/or dormant resistant stage. Cyst
O and P stand for ova and parasite
Purpose of PVA fixes parasite and keeps it alive
If a sample cannot be transported to the lab immediately it should be preserved
Maintains parasite morphologic characteristics preservatives
in specimen collection and transport , situations that are considered immediate include: 1. CNS specimens looking for free-living amebae 2. blood films for potential malaria
2 vial system commonly used for fecal samples. What are the vials for? 1. 5-10% formalin for immunoassay and concentration for microscopy, 2. PVA for stained smears
the 3rd part of the O&P exam is the permanent stained smear; designed to ID the intestinal protozoa
Matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid, dregs Sediment
coccidian oocysts are identified by modified acid-fast stain
purpose of the direct smear check organism motility
purpose of concentration concentrates - protozoan cysts, coccidian oocysts, microsporidian spores, helminth eggs and larvae
purpose of trichrome stain provides contrast between background debris and parasite
formalin is a preservative
formalin is called a fixative
Purpose of Formalin-ether Fixes- eggs.larvae oocysts and spores
Purpose of Trichrome stain Distinguishes cysts and trophozoites
Purpose of modified iron hematoxylin stain Demonstrates cysts and trophozoites
Purpose of Modified acid-fast stain Highlights Coccidia
Formalin is called an xxx-xxxxxxx fixative all-purpose
PVA is xxx not a fixative adhesive
PVA helps glue the stool material onto the slide
Formalin fixes what 4 groups? eggs, larvae, oocysts and spores
modified trichrome stains are to identify Microsporidia spores
Down side of a wet mount Can disintegrate immediately
Type of sample for suspected parasites of the intestinal tract stool
3 methods of O and P exam 1. direct wet mount, 2. concentration, 3. permanent stain
test for intestinal specimens that goes to the sigmoid colon; bottom part of a colonoscopy. Sigmoidoscopy
Test for intestinal specimens, a tube that pulls a vacuum, goes thru the nose down to the duodenum. Duodenal drainage
A fecal specimen can be preserved in 10% formalin. What 3 tests can be run? 1. modified trichrome stain, 2. Elisa, 3. wet mount
what does the modified trichrome stain test for? Microsporidia
What does ELISA test for? Giardia and Cyclosporidium
What does the wet mount test for? Helminths and protozoa
Fecal specimens can be affixed with PVA. What test is then used on the sample? Trichrome stain
What parasite is the trichrome stain used on? Protozoa
Fecal specimens can be processed with Formalin-Ethyl acetate sedimentation. What 4 tests are run off this? 1. Safranin stain, 2. Acid fast stain, 3. Direct mound epifluorescence, 4. wet mount
what is the safranin stain used to test for? Cyclospora
What is the acid-test stain used to test for/ Cyrptosporidium, Cycloisospora, Cyclospora
What is the direct mount epifluorescence used to test for? Cyclospora and Isospora
following sedimentation what is the wet mount used to test for? Helminths and protozoa
Created by: nawchem



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