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Hominids. Type of human before homo sapiens.
Homo sapiens. Only surviving human species between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago.
Why did the homo sapiens survive and other species of humans did not? Homo sapiens had several advantages over other human species, including bipedalism, opposable thumbs, large brain for refection and advanced consciousness, had tools and cave paintings.
Paleolithic Age. Otherwise known as the Old Stone Age, ended in 8000 BCE.
What was the Paleolithic Age like socially? Humans traveled in small groups, they were nomads, division of labor was based on sex, no inequality among genders, had free time, no status differences.
What was the Paleolithic Age like intellectually? They had free time for cave paintings.
What was the Paleolithic Age like technologically? They had basic weapons.
What was the Paleolithic Age like economically? Humans were on all of the continents except Antarctica, hunting and gathering was the main source of food.
Neolithic Age. Otherwise known as the agricultural revolution, occurred at different times all of the world, marker event.
Horticulture. Only hand tools.
Pastorialists. First domesticators of animals.
How was the Paleolithic Age different than the Neolithic Age socially? Inequality developed and social classes developed.
How was the Paleolithic Age different than the Neolithic Age religiously? They developed structured, polytheistic religions.
How was the Paleolithic Age different than the Neolithic Age intellectually? They had domesticated animals and specialization of labor.
How was the Paleolithic Age different than the Neolithic Age technologically? They had more advanced hand tools, pottery, metallurgy, and textiles.
How was the Paleolithic Age different than the Neolithic Age economically? They had a surplus of food, were no longer nomads, and urbanization (Cities include Jericho of the Jordan River and Catal Huyuk of Turkey).
Lucy. Example of a bipedal creature that lived before homo sapiens, eventually became extinct.
Why was the discovery of Lucy significant? She helped scientists understand evolution.
Great Rift Valley. Trench between Asia and southern Africa, shows changes in the earth.
What role did the Great Rift Valley play during the Neolithic Age? It separated the people of Asia and the people of Africa, as the people refused to cross it.
Seven characteristics of a civilization. Reliable surpluses, specialized occupations, distinct social classes, cities, complex governments, long distance trade, and writing systems.
Cultural hearths. Areas of civilizations that first began that civilization's prosperity and effect on the world.
Why were most period one civilizations in river valleys? The soil was fertile and water was used for transportation.
Where was the earliest civilization? Mesopotamia.
Where was Mesopotamia? Southwest Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates River.
Two of Mesopotamia's nicknames. "Land between two rivers" and fertile crescent.
How did Mesopotamia's location affect the type of people that traveled there? It served as cross roads for travelers.
What were the city states like in Mesopotamia? They fought with each other, ruled by theocracies (Priests).
List the order of the rulers of Mesopotamia. 1. Semites (City states) 2. Sumerians (City states) 3. Akkadian Empire (Unified) 4. Babylonians
Sargon the Great. Ruled the Akkadian Empire, unified the city states under kings.
Hammurabi. King of the Babylonians, had the first written law code that gave punishments.
What was Mesopotamia like socially? They had slaves.
What was Mesopotamia like religiously? Epic of Gilgamesh (oral story about religion), believed that gods intervened in human affairs, ziggurats, amulets.
What was Mesopotamia like intellectually? Writing system (cuneiform), Semitic language.
What was Mesopotamia like economically? Depended on agriculture, trade, labor systems (different jobs working together), used trading seals.
Where was Egypt located? In northeastern Africa near the Nile River.
What was the climate of Egypt like? It was a hot and arid desert.
Why was Egypt isolated? Its desert and cataracts (dangerous waters).
Why was Egypt ideal for agriculture? The Nile River had predictable flooding.
What was Egypt like socially? Social mobility, patriarchy.
What was Egypt like politically? Pharaoh was the leader, Menes was the first pharaoh, Old, Middle, and New Kingdom, unified by 3000 BCE.
What was Egypt like religiously? Religion was significant, pharaoh was divine, polytheistic.
What was Egypt like intellectually? Pyramids, solar calendar, medical knowledge, hieroglyphics, Book of the Dead, mummification
What was Egypt like technologically? Pottery, metal work, statues.
What was Egypt like economically? Traded with Mesopotamia, dependent on farming, longest lasting civilization.
Geography and climate of the Indus River Valley. Current day Pakistan, Himalayas served as protection, monsoons, Hindu Kush.
What was the Indus River Valley like socially? Distinct social classes.
What was the Indus River Valley like politically? Dominant priestly class, eventually conquered by the Aryans, unknown yet gradual decline (systems failure).
What was the Indus River Valley like religiously? Saw water as a religious symbol, polytheistic.
What was the Indus River Valley like intellectually? Trade seals later helped scientists decipher their language, very little known about the civilization today.
What was the Indus River Valley like technologically? Did not have many weapons.
What was the Indus River Valley like economically? Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were major cities, advanced agriculture, traded.
Geography of China. Eastern Asia, near the Yellow/Huang He and Yangzi River with irregular flooding (loess- sediment made of silt), isolated.
What was China like socially? Social classes: 1. Elite/Dynasty 2. Peasants 3. Slaves ("Mean people"), women gradually lost status, valued family and ancestors (filial piety).
What was China like politically? Dynasties (Ancient- Shang and Zhou), had western and eastern capitols, mandate of heaven allowed Zhou to overthrow Shang, dynastic cycle,
What was China like religiously? Not very religious, no strong priestly class, oracle bones read by shamans, valued ancestors, had Confucianism as a philosophy instead of a leading religion.
What was China like intellectually? Shi- educated men of service, writing system-pictograph, emphasized education and literacy, Confucianism, Analects- Book of Confucianism, Book of Songs (poetry book).
What was China like technologically? Built dikes, hoes, and canals to control flooding of the rivers, metallurgy.
What was China like economically? Cities, most people lived in eastern China.
Geography/Climate of Greece. Near the Aegean Sea, on the Island of Crete, mountainous, a lot of islands, poor soil, near Mediterranean Sea.
Effects of Greece's geography. Mountains- formation of polis/city-states Aegean Sea- dependent on water and sailing, little land travelling, trade caused cultural diffusion Poor soil- little farming
Minoans. First Greek civilization, located on the Island of Crete, replaced by the Mycenaean.
Mycenaean. Replaced the Minoans, took part in the Trojan War with Troy, fell into a small dark age until the Phoenicians took over and ended their isolation.
Homer. Wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey, epic poet.
Iliad. Story about the Trojan War, had Greek bias.
Hoplites. Solders that otherwise workers as farmers, quick by deadly fighting style, no fighting during harvest season, carried long spears.
Phalanx. Rectangular fighting formation of hoplites.
Causes of the Persian War. Persians fought Athenian territory, Ionia, Athens supplied Ionia with weapons and angered Persia.
Effects of Persian War. Athens became the most significant city state.
Who was Athens' ally in the Persian War? Sparta.
Pericles. General during the Golden Age of Athens, caused the Peloponnesian War, "Leader of Democracy"
Causes of the Peloponnesian War. Treasury was moved to Athens, forcing other city states to become a part of the Delian League that only benefited Athens, Athens became too powerful and angered Sparta, attacked Sparta's ally, Corinth.
Effects of the Peloponnesian War. Gradual downfall of Greece, Spartan victory.
Socrates. First Greek philosopher to focus on ethical questions, truth-seeking, and understanding relationships.
Why was Socrates put to death? Arrested and convicted for poisoning the minds of the youth, shows conflict between religion and new ways of thinking.
Plato. Socrates' student, wrote about Socrates, taught Aristotle, founded The Academy.
Aristotle. Plato's student, studied natural and social sciences, taught Alexander the Great, wrote the Republic.
What was Athens like politically? They experimented with different types of governments before forming a direct democracy, had town meetings where free males could vote, had a randomly selected council of 500 with one year terms.
Cleisthenes. Came up with the idea of democracy for Athens.
Solon. Established that new Athenian laws could be written and old laws could be revised.
What was Athens like socially? Women had no power and were considered inferior, slaves, distinct social classes.
What was Athens like intellectually? They heavily valued education and philosophy, Parthon with columns (Doric, Ionic, Corinthic), strong navy.
What was Sparta like politically? Had an oligarchy with two kings.
What was Sparta like socially? Had few luxuries to maintain equality, women were equal and ran businesses while men were fighting, had helots, no cultural diffusion or trade.
Helots. Slaves that were once warriors of conquered Messina.
What was Sparta like culturally? Helot rebellions led to a militaristic environment, self-disciplined, emphasized physical fitness.
What was Greece's religion like? Polytheistic, each city-state had a patron, believed gods could not control humans, no strong priestly class, believed in philosophy, examples of gods include Zeus, Poseidon, and Athena.
Architecture of Greece. Acropolis (famous temple in Athens), inspired Roman architecture, columns (Ionic, Donic, Corinthean), sculptures.
Greek literature. Lyric poetry (Song-like poems that express emotions, studied by Aristotle), Iliad and the Odyssey, The Republic.
Drama. Plays about gods and their interactions with humans, Aristophanes, comedies and tragedies.
Hellenistic World. The spreading of Greek, Persian, and Indian culture by Alexander the Great to his conquered areas by Greek immigrants.
King Philip. Alexander the Great's father, King of Macedonia, conquered Greece, took over Greece after the Peloponnese War.
Alexander the Great. Conquered many lands known to Greece, Macedonian King, empire fell after his death.
Greek science. Inspired by Romans, studied by Aristotle, Hipocrastics, scientific inquiry, knew the Earth was round.
Greek philosophy. Love of wisdom, interested in the physical world, believed in natural law, philosophers include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
Estrucans. Established city states in Rome, enslaved Romans until their rebellion.
Roman Republic. State without a monarch, run by representatives.
What was the Roman Republic like politically? Senate, two elected consuls, tribunes that represented the plebeians, Law of Twelve Tables- for crime, inspired modern laws
What was the Roman Republic like socially? Patricians were on top, plebeians were commoners, slaves due to debt.
What were the achievements of the Roman Republic? Democracy, Law of Twelve Tables, aqueducts, distributed land among the poor, arches.
Who was accountable for the fall of the Roman Republic? Julius Caesar.
Senate. Government of the Roman Republic, composed of Patricians, hereditary passing, had all of the power despite the democratic set up.
Dictator. One person rules all, only used by republic during emergancies.
Punic Wars. Victory for Rome over Carthage, three wars.
Effects of the Punic Wars. Increased Rome's economic and political power, furthered expansion.
Julius Caesar. Challenged the senate's power, ruled the triumvirate, crowned himself dictator, murdered on the Idles of March, conquered.
Augustus Caesar (Octavian). Defeated Mark Antony, nephew of Julius Caesar, declared the consul by the senate, started the Roman Empire, first emperor.
Five good emperors. The best emperors of the Roman Empire, ruled during the Golden Age.
Pax Romana. "Roman peace", golden age, trade thrived, less expansion calmed the empire, decline began afterwards, 200 years.
Roman Empire. Ruled by a dictator/consul for life.
What was the Roman Empire like politically? Ruled by a dictator, senate had no real power, expanded to north Africa and Middle East, controlled Mediterranean Sea and its trade
What was the Roman Empire like socially? Social classes became more distinct, rising middle class.
Achievements of the Roman Empire. Roads, expansion, plays, architecture, Collsium, Pax Romana.
What led to the downfall of the Roman Empire? Inconsistent selection of the emperor, defenseless borders, overexpansion, invasions from nomadic group, famine, plague, Christianity, economic decline, poverty, high taxes, over reliance on slaves, less expansion, mercenaries are not loyal to empire.
Diocletian. Divided the Roman Empire into the east and west because it was too large, the west fell but the east stayed strong.
Who founded Christianity? Where was it founded? In what period was it founded? Founder- Jesus of Nazareth Where- Rome Legalized it- Constantine Made it official religion- Theodosius When- Period Two
What were the basic beliefs of Christianity? What was its holy book? Was it universalizing or ethnic? Beliefs- Jesus is the Messiah, love and charity Holy Book- The Bible Universalizing
How did Christianity spread? Why was it so significant? Christianity spread through Roman roads and disciples It was a failed attempt to hold Rome together, led to its fall because people became less loyal to the emperors and their native religions
Who founded Judaism? Where was it founded? In what period was it founded? Founder- Abraham Where- Israel When- Period One
What were the basic beliefs of Judaism? What was its holy book? Was it universalizing or ethnic? Beliefs- Messiah has not come yet, Ten Commandments, Abraham's covenant Holy Book- Torah Ethnic
How did Judaism spread? What were the long term effects of the formation of Judaism? Through the diaspora Inspired Christianity and Islam, started monotheism
Where was Hinduism founded? When was it founded? (Founder is unknown) Where- India When- Period One
What were the basic beliefs of Hinduism? What was its holy book? Was it universalizing or ethnic? Beliefs- Dharma, karma, moksha, Atman, reincarnation, caste system, Brahman Holy Book- Rig Vedas Ethnic
What impact did Hinduism have? Did it spread rapidly, why or why not? Put the Aryans about the Dravidians in society It did not spread rapidly because it is an ethnic religion
Who founded Buddhism? Where was it founded? In what period was it founded? Founder- Siddartha Guatama Where- Ganges River Valley, India When- Period Two
What were the basic beliefs of Buddhism? What were its law codes? Was it universalizing or ethnic? Beliefs- Nirvana, ending desire will end suffering Law Codes- Eight Fold Path, Four Noble Truths Universalizing
How did Buddhism spread? Why did many Hindus convert to it? What was a famous branch of Buddhism? Spread through the Silk Road Low caste Hindus did not want to reincarnate in order to reach the final resting place Theravada Buddhism
Who founded Confucianism? Where was it founded? In what period? Founder- Confucius Where- China When- Period Two
What were the basic beliefs of Confucianism? What book is associated with it? Was it universalizing or ethnic? Beliefs- Five key relationships, filial piety, family, education, Li, Ren, civil service tests The Analects Ethnic
What emperor popularized Confucianism? What impact did it have on China ? Han Wudi Ended the Warring States Period
Who founded Daoism? Where was it founded? In what period? Founder- Laozi Where- China When- Period Two
What were the basic beliefs of Daoism? Was it universalizing or ethnic? Beliefs- Following the dao will end conflict, encouraged a weak government, emphasized nature Ethnic
Who popularized Legalism? Where was it founded? In what period? Shi Huangdi of the Qin Dynasty Where- China When- Period Two
What are the basic beliefs of Legalism? Humans are naturally evil and will only obey through force, strict laws, harsh punishments, sacrifice of personal freedoms for the greater good.
Shi Huangdi. Burned books, "first emperor", unified China, standardized measurements and currencies, built the Great Wall.
Muhammad. Founder of Islam, received a revelation from Allah, escaped from Mecca to Medina, returned to Mecca to spread Islam.
Bedouins. Those who lived in the Arabian Peninsula, were organized into tribes that fought for natural resources in the dry climate.
Prophesies/Revelations. Muhammad had a revelation from Gabriel (angel), and the message was from Allah.
Polytheistic idol worship at the Kaaba. Mecca had a polytheistic shrine to bring visitors, Black Stone.
Hegira. Muhammad's departure from Mecca to Medina due to angry politicians.
Umma. Muslim community.
Hajj. Journey to Mecca that Muslims must make in their lifetime because Muhammad traveled back there from Medina.
Iconoclasm. Muhammad destroyed the animistic worship and only left the Black Cube.
Five pillars of Islam. Fast during Ramadan, pray five times a day, charity, hajj to Mecca, oath of faith to Allah and Muhammad. (Fred picks cherries for picnics)
Sharia. Islam's laws that were based on the Koran.
The people of the book. Muslims' name for Christians and Jews, shows respect for monotheists.
Sunni Muslims. Believed the caliph should be chosen by the Muslims.
Shiite Muslims. Believed the caliph should be related to Muhammad.
Conquered regions of Islam. East- Afghanistan West- Northern Africa and Spain, was stopped at France by the Battle of Tours with Charles Martel
Jizya (Head tax). Muslims did not force people to convert to their religion, they did have to pay a tax if they were not a Muslim.
Where and when was the Umayyad Caliphate's reign? When- Period Three Where- Syria
Achievements of the Umayyad Caliphate. First centralized Islamic caliphate, expanded the Islamic Empire.
Where and when was the Abbasid Caliphate's reign? When- Directly after Umayyad Caliphate's fall Where- Baghdad (Iraq)
Achievements of the Abbasid Caliphate. Responsible for Islam's Golden Age, wealthy, TRADED, imperialism, sharia, ulama, viziers.
Where and when of Fatimid Caliphate. Where- Northern Africa When- After Abbasid Caliphate
keep going.... you can do this!!!!!! :D :O :)
Medieval Period. 500 to 1500 CE, between Roman Empire and Renaissance, began with the fall of the Roman Empire.
Dark Ages. First 500 years of the Middle Ages, marked by chaos, violence, disorder, and dis-unification, less trade, power of church increased, feudalism, literacy rates drop.
Barbaric invaders. Nomads who conquered the Roman Empire.
Clovis. Ruled the Franks from 481-511, first Frankish King to conquer Gaul from the Romans.
Charles Martel. Charles "The Hammer", Frankish leader who defended France from invading Muslims.
Charlemagne. Known as the successful Dark Ages King, king of the Franks, crowned "Emperor of the West" by the Pope on Christmas 800.
Feudalism. Decentralized political system based on the exchange of land for military loyalty.
Manorialism. Economic system of self sufficiency where the peasants work on the lord's land.
Roman Catholic Church. Christianity served as a source of order and organization that the government did not offer, caused the Crusades.
Vikings. Raiders from Scandinavia that tried to attack western Europe.
Hagia Sophia. Church of Holy Wisdom built by Justinian in Constantinople.
How did Constantinople become "The New Rome"? Museums were built, along with roads, parks, schools, aqueducts, Hagia Sophia, hippodrome.
Justinian's Code. Collected, revised, and organized the laws of Rome, influenced law today.
Social classes of feudalism. 1. King 2. Lords/Nobles 3. Knights 4. Serfs 5. Free peasants
Social classes of Roman Catholic Church. 1. Pope 2. Bishops 3. Abbots 4. Priests 5. Missionaries/Monks/Nuns
Crusades. A series of holy wars fought between Christians and Muslims over Jerusalem, their holy land.
What were the main differences between feudalism and monarchies? Feudalism- decentralized, lords had the most power, government was not stable Monarchies- Centralized, royalty had all of the power, usually had a stable government
Hanseatic League. Medieval organization of merchants and trading companies for mutual protection and to set standards of trade in the High Middle Ages, located in northern Europe.
Bubonic Plague. Began in China and spread to eastern Europe through rats on trading ships and spread through Europe, many deaths, increased demand for workers, ended feudalism.
Hundred Years War. William of Normandy invaded England and started a territorial dispute.
Parliament. Gave nobles and clergy a voice in policy making in England and France, the English one was strong but the French was not.
Common law. Laws based on traditions, used in the courts of England.
Magna Carta. Document King John of England was forced to sign in the High Middle Ages that limited the king's power and granted feudal rights to citizens of England.
Estates General. France's parliament, wasn't powerful.
Cultural diffusion from the Byzantine Empire to Russia. Converted Russia to Eastern Orthodoxy, Cyrillic Alphabet was established so Russians could read the Bible, fought with Roman Catholic Church for converts.
What was the later significance of Russia converting to Eastern Orthodoxy? After the Byzantine Empire fell, Russia continued to spread Eastern Orthodoxy.
Great Schism. Division of Christianity into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
How did the Byzantine Empire fall? Emperors with no military experience, attacked by 4th crusade, lost after Justinian, peasant were depended on, sacked by Ottoman Turks, relied on Italian cities of western Europe.
What was education like during the High Middle Ages? Monks kept education relevant during the Dark Ages by operating schools and copying old books, many books were destroyed by the Germanic invasions, Crusades inspired universities, books were written in vernacular languages.
Scholasticism. Proving Christianity by using logic and the teachings of Aristotle.
Architecture. Romanesque- simple, mysterious, small windows Gothic- extravagant, stain glassed windows, tall buildings, flying buttresses
Trade fairs. Where apprentices found work, formed guilds.
What were medieval towns like? They were communal cities (had a culture based on the towns around it), examples include Paris and London.
Craft guilds. Groups of merchants working together, helped facilitate trade.
Bering Strait. Ice bridge that connected Asia to North America, brought people to Mesoamerica.
What was the Olmec written language like? They used hieroglyphics that historians still cannot decipher.
Stone ball court. Ritual ball games that occurred through out all of the Mesoamerican civilizations, represent gods fighting, played to the death.
Chinampas. Located in Teotihuacan and the Aztecs, floating gardens for increased agriculture production.
Obsidian mines. Lack of metallurgy, used obsidian knives for sacrifices.
Where/When of Maya. Where- Central America and Mexico When- Period Two
What type of agriculture did the Maya use and why? Slash and burn because they lived in rainforests where they were many trees but the soil wasn't fertile.
Common religious themes of the Mesoamerican civilizations. Human sacrifices, priests had powers, polytheistic.
Achievements of the Maya. Pyramids, stellae.
Decline of the Maya. Unknown reasons, cities declined, jungles grew over cities.
Where/When of the Aztecs. Where- Mexico When- Period Three
Which Mesoamerican civilization had the most sacrifices and why? Aztecs because they valued human blood and wanted to give it to the gods.
Achievements of the Aztecs. Strong military.
Downfall of the Aztecs. Cortex, European diseases.
Where/When of Inca. Where- Peru When- Period Three
What type of agriculture did the Inca use? Terrace farming.
How was Inca's religion different from the other Mesoamericans'? Their king was divine and they had no human sacrifices.
Achievements of the Inca. Temples, understood when certain crops should be planted, metal tools, fertilizers.
Decline of Inca. Leader was killed.
When did the Han Dynasty fall and why? When- 200's Why- Nomadic invasions
Effects of the fall of the Han Dynasty. Era of Division, scholar gentry lost power, war lords ruled China, weak defense against invaders, trade decreased.
Era of Division. China became fragmented into regional kingdoms that fought with one another, much like the Warring States Period.
Grand Canal. Large water work project that connected the Yangtze and Huang he River, built by the Sui Dynasty.
Effects of the Grand Canal. Facilitated trade between northern and southern China, allowed political and cultural unity, China had domination over the rest of Asia.
Kaifeng. Capital of the Song Dynasty before the Jurchens moved it.
Chang'an. Tang capital, major trading city.
Xinjiang. Where the steel and blast furnace was created.
Tribute system. Process through which a less powerful nation is forced into a subsequent relationship.
Song Dynasty's negative tribute relationship. With the Jurchens, Song played tribute to avoid being attacked, split into the time periods of the northern and southern song because of the movement of the capital from Kaifeng to Hangzhou.
Neoconfucianism. New interpretation of Confucianism that blended Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism, based on the teachings of Mencius.
Effects of Neoconfucianism. Decreased status of women.
Civil Service Exam. Examinations based on Confucianism, needed to be passed in order to obtain a government position.
Why was the Civil Service Exam revived by the Song? The military generals were too powerful and they did not want them to hold government positions.
Foot binding. Process of breaking and binding young girls' feet in order to produce small feet.
Reasons for foot binding. Symbol for the upper class, women had to depend on their husbands, female subordination, please men into marrying you.
Marco Polo. Merchant from Venice that visited the Mongol Empire in China, had his cell mate document his journeys.
Effect of Marco Polo. Made Europeans interested in exploration.
Social classes of medieval China. 1. Emperor/Dynasty 2. Scholar gentry 3. Aristocrats 4. Peasants
Rise of the Sui Dynasty. Emperor Wendi reunited China after the Era of Division, made allies with neighboring kingdoms through marriage.
Fall of the Sui Dynasty. Short lived, paved the road for the Tang Dynasty, Wendi was killed by his son and his son was killed.
Rise of the Tang Dynasty. Li Yuan, the Duke of Tang, was Wendi's adviser and took over.
Political achievements of the Tang. Expansion, repaired the Great Wall, defeated enemies, rebuilt the bureaucracy, revived the scholar gentry.
Economical achievements of the Tang. Set up positive tribute systems, set up major trading cities, paper money, made gun powder.
Social achievements of the Tang. Had the middle kingdom mindset, equal fields system.
Equal field system. Took power away from the aristocrats.
Intellectual achievements of the Tang. Established universities, poetry, popularized Buddhism.
Fall of the Tang Dynasty. Neglectful emperors, rebellions, attacks, military commanders had too much power.
Rise of the Song Dynasty. Taizu reunited China.
Political achievements of the Song. Revived scholar gentry, took power away from military commanders, Wu Zhao, thrived in trade.
Wu Zhao. First female Chinese emperor to rule under her own name.
Intellectual achievements of the Song. Paper and book production, Neoconfucianism.
Technological achievements of the Song. Invented fertilizers, magnetic compasses.
Fall of the Song Dynasty. Mongol attacks under Genghis Khan.
Rise of the Yuan Dynasty. China was politically and militarily weak, conquered Jurchen who had a tributary system with China, founded by Kublai Khan.
Achievements of the Yuan Dynasty. Toleration towards Confucianism, women had more freedom.
Downfall of Yuan Dynasty. Failed to conquer Japan and Vietnam, death of Chabi, rulers were weak, greed and corruption, rebellions of the scholar gentry.
Rise of the Ming Dynasty. Founded by Ju Yuanzhang after a time of chaos.
Achievements of the Ming Dynasty. Removed all traces of Mongol rule, revived Confucianism and Civil Service Exam, moved capital to Nanjing, repaired Great Wall, isolationism.
Geography of Japan. Mountains, close to China, surrounded by major trade routes, archipelago, surrounded by the Korea Strait.
Political effects of the geography of Japan. Isolation, divided into small city states, safe from invasions, could only be reached by the sea, Korea Strait was too dangerous to cross, never conquered by the Chinese.
Intellectual effects of the geography of Japan. Language different from the Chinese, different religion from China, traded with China.
Cultural diffusion from China to Japan. Buddhism, Confucianism, architecture.
Shotoku Taishi and Taika Reforms. Established rules in Japan.
Zen Buddhism. Emphasizes meditation, brought to Japan by an Indian monk, Buddhism was favored over Confucianism, less of a religion and more of a peace exploration, practiced by samurai.
Heian/Nara Period. Rule of the Fujiwara Shogunate, had real power instead of the emperor, valued Confucianism.
Kamakura Shogunate. Shoguate after the Fujiwara, shogun was the Minamoto.
Invasion of Kublai Khan into Japan. Failed, led to decline of the Mongols.
Ashikaga Shogunate. Dynasty of Japan in the 1400's.
Effect of the Onin War. Established feudalism and the shogunate.
Shintoism. Native Japanese religion that was animistic and believed in kami, remained strong after Confucianism and Buddhism arrived.
Tea ceremonies. Zen Buddhist tradition of serving and drinking tea.
Japanese literature. Tale of Genji, most women did not receive an education.
Tale of Genji. Written by Shikibu, spoke about the Fujiwara family.
Japanese theater. Kabuki- had colorful clothing and makeup
Social classes of Japanese feudalism. 1. Shogunate 2. Lords 3. Samurai 4. Peasants
Three Kingdoms. Three political organizations of early Korea.
Korea Strait. Considered dangerous waters, protected Japan and Korea.
Koryo Dynasty. Second politically unified Korean dynasty.
Mongol rule in Korea. Failed attempt to conquer Korea, set Mongols into decline.
Genghis Khan. First leader of the unified Mongols in the 1200's.
Kublai Khan. Grandson of Genghis Khan who conquered China and established the Yuan Dynasty.
Skilled cavalry of the Mongols. Divided into light and heavy cavalry, skilled on horseback.
Il Khanate. Established by Hulegu, controlled Armenia and Mesopotamia.
Khanate of the Golden Horde. Controlled Russia.
Great Khanate. Ruled China, controlled by Kublai Khan.
Khanate of Jagadai. Ruled by Timur, controlled Central Asia.
Nubia. Civilization in period one that was located in southern Egypt, connected Sub Saharan Africa and northern Africa, had a lot of gold.
Kush. People of the Nubian civilization.
Axum. Major Christian city in Ethiopia.
Ethiopia. Practiced Coptic Christianity through out the Middle Ages.
Ghana. Mandated gold and salt trade in western Africa, converted to Islam.
Mali. Led by Sundiata, had major city Timbuktu, Mansa Musa, mandated trade, converted to Islam.
Songhai. Sunni Ali, spread Islam, fell due to lack of technology, mandated trade, converted to Islam.
Swahili Coast. Located in eastern Africa, centers of Islam, traded, spoke Swahili.
Zimbabwe. Main export was gold for trade, did not convert to Islam.
Coptic Christianity. Christianity that developed in Ethiopia due to isolation, had amulets, masks, and spirits.
Causes of the Bantu Migration. Desertification- Sahara Desert dried out their agriculture.
Effects of the Bantu Migration. Spread their culture, spread the Bantu language, traveled through sub Saharan Africa.
Swahili. Combination of Bantu and Arabic languages.
Mansa Musa. Made a pilgrimage to Mecca, brought back Muslim scholars, established schools and madrasas in Mali.
Effects of Mansa Musa. Caused gold inflation, spread Islam through out the Mali Empire.
Mahmud of Ghazni. Robbed Hindu and Buddhist temples to spread Islam in India.
Delhi Sultanate. First Muslim Empire to be established in India that wasn't a branch of another, converted northern India to Islam, large army.
Tamerlane. Unified India after the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate.
Sikhism. Mixture of Hinduism and Islam, example of cultural diffusion and blending of beliefs.
Metatheses. Greek journalist that wrote about India during its golden age.
Fa Xian. Chinese monk who wrote about Buddhism in India.
Marco Polo. Italian merchant who visited China in the 1200's and returned to Europe with his journal.
Significance of Marco Polo. Made Europe interested in exploration.
Ibn Battuta. Muslim from Morocco who visited the Muslim tropics in the 1300's.
Significance of Ibn Battuta. Shows bias between Muslims observing Muslims and the non-Muslims.
Silk Road. Trade network that connected Europe to Asia, facilitated by China.
Examples of goods exchanged on the Silk Road. Horses, gold, silk, gun powder.
Mediterranean Sea. Served as a middle trading system of the Silk Road or Indian Ocean and exporter.
Indian Ocean Maritime System. Trading system that extended from China to Africa, main exports included ivory and spices.
Sahara Desert. Sahel was used for trade because it was in between the desert and the jungle, main exports were gold and salt.
Created by: emarciante9
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