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Chapter 2

The American Colonies Emerge

Hernando Cortes Spanish conquistador and explorer who defeated the Aztec empire and claimed Mexico for Spain.
Conquistador One of the Spaniards who traveled to the Americas as an explorer and conqueror in the 16th century.
New Spain Name of the colony set up by Cortes in Mexico.
Mestizo Of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry.
Encomienda A system in which Spanish authorities granted colonial landlords the service of Native Americans as forced laborers.
Juan Ponce de Leon Spanish conquistador that led a European expedition for gold, which eventually brought him to the southeast coast of what would become the United States.
Joint-Stock Companies Businesses in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose.
Jamestown Name of the first English settlement in America. Located in Virginia. Led by John Smith. The colony struggled greatly at first, but by growing tobacco was able to thrive.
Headright System The Virginia Company's policy of granting 50 acres of land to each settler and to each family member that accompanied him.
Indentured Servant A person who has contracted to work for another for a limited period, often in return for travel expenses, shelter, and sustenance.
Royal Colony A colony under the direct control of the English monarch.
Puritans Members of a group that wanted to eliminate all traces of Roman Catholic ritual and traditions in the Church of England.
John Winthrop Leader of the Puritans, settled "New England."
Separatists A member of one of the Puritan groups that, denying the possibility of reform within the Church of England, established their own independent congregations. Also known as Pilgrims.
Plymouth Colony Second permanent English settlement in North America. Settled by the Pilgrims.
Massachusetts Bay Colony Settled by John Winthrop and Puritans. Their capital was located in Boston.
Roger Williams Puritan preacher that believed the settlers had no right to the land they were living on unless it was purchased from the Native Americans, and that the government had no right to tell people what religion to practice. He was to be arrested, but escaped.
Anne Hutchinson Puritan woman that taught that worshipers needed neither the church or ministers to interpret the Bible. She was banished and moved to Rhode Island.
Pequot War A 1637 conflict in which the Pequot nation battled Connecticut colonists and their Narragansett allies.
King Phillip's War A conflict, from 1675-1676, between New England colonists and Native American groups allied under the leadership of the Wampanoag chief Metacom
William Penn Quaker leader that founded Pennsylvania.
Proprietor An owner - particularly one of those granted ownership of, and full governing rights over, certain of the English colonies in North America.
Quakers Members of the Society of Friends, a religious group persecuted for its beliefs in 17th-century England.
Created by: tj03tayl
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