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U.S. History

U.S. History VA SOL Review (WINKS)

QuestionAnswer
Name 3 strikes of the labor unions during the Progressive Era. Haymarket Square, Homestead Strike, and Pullman Strike
Who was the founder and long time leader of the American Federation of Labor? Samuel Gompers
What were some of the problems created by the rapid growth of cities? Housing Shortages, need for public services such as: Sewage, Water, and Transportation
What was Virginia's response to Brown v. Board of Education? Massive Resistance - Closing some schools, Establishing Private Academies, and White Flight from Urban Schools.
When was the United Nations (UN) formed? Near end of World War II (Officially October 24, 1945)
What was the turning point of World War II in Eastern Europe? Who Defeated whom? Stalingrad - Soviet Union defeated Germany
Which state's economy probably benefited most from the heavy military expenditures during the Cold War? Virginia's - Especially the Hampton Roads area (Naval and air bases) and Northern Virginia (Pentagon)
What were two wars during George W. Bush presidency? War in Afghanistan - War in Iraq
Whose Vice President was George H.W. Bush Ronald Reagan
What was the name of the event where Nazi leaders were convicted of war crimes? Nuremburg Trials
What was the "Great Awakening"? Religious movement that swept Europe and the colonies during the mid-1700's
What was the House of Burgesses? First elected assembly in the New World
Who was president when NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) was agreed upon? Who are the countries involved in NAFTA? William (Bill) J. Clinton - United States, Mexico, and Canada
Which state was founded by dissenters fleeing persecution by the Puritans in Massachusetts? Rhode Island
How did Robert E. Lee and Abraham Lincoln feel about secession? Neither wanted Secession
What was the name given by the United States to the land and air operations during the Persian Gulf War? Operation Desert Storm
What was the "Final Solution"? Germany's decision to exterminate all Jews
Who presided over the Constitutional Convention? George Washington
Who was the major author of the Declaration of Independence? Thomas Jefferson
Whose new political ideas of natural rights influenced the Declaration of Independence? John Locke
Who were the early leaders of the Democratic Republicans? Thomas Jefferson & James Madison
What was the Proclamation of 1763? Prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains because it was too costly to protect.
What battle was the turning point of the Civil War? Gettysburg
Who wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights? George Mason
What was the "Manifest Destiny"? Belief that is was Americas right to colonize from the Atlantic to Pacific Oceans
Who gave a speech saying, "Give me Liberty or give me Death"? Patrick Henry
Did the Federalists favor a strong of weak national government? Strong National Government
Who negotiated a Treaty of Alliance with France during the Revolutionary War? Benjamin Franklin
Who was President when the Louisiana Purchase was made? What year was it purchased? Thomas Jefferson - 1803
Who was the President during the Revolutionary War? We had no President - King of England Ruled the Colonies
Where did Lee surrender to Grant? In what Year? Appomattox Court House - 1865
Who was author of the Bill of Rights? What 2 documents influenced him? James Madison - Virginia Declaration of Rights & Statute of Religious Freedom
Where did the Puritans first settle in the New World? Why did they leave England? New England - To avoid Religious Persecution
Which came first -- The Constitutional Convention or the Continental Congress? Continental Congress
How was the balance of power between the large and small states accomplished in the Constitution? 2 Houses - Senate (2 - Even Representation) & House of Representatives (Population Based)
Who were the leading opponents to the ratification of the Constitution in 1787? Patrick Henry & George Mason
What are 3 ways that the Declaration of Independence principle of economic participation (pursuit of happiness) was extended in the new republic? Regulating Free Enterprise, Promoting Economic Opportunity, and Protecting Property Rights
What is Suffrage? Name 2 leaders of the Women's Suffrage Movement. Right to Vote - Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony
What is the Spoils System? Using Public Office to benefit members of the victorious party
Who vetoed the rechartering of the Bank of the United States in 1832? President Andrew Jackson
What was the compromise that admitted California as a free state? Compromise of 1850
Who was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court that established judicial review? What was the court case? John Marshall - Marbury v. Madison
What document said that people have a right to change a government if it violates their rights? Declaration of Independence
After what battle was the Emancipation Proclamation issued? Battle of Antietam
What religious groups helped settle New Jersey and Pennsylvania? New Jersey - Presbyterians, Pennsylvania - Quakers
Who was the first President to be impeached? What was the issue? Andrew Johnson - impeachment was over Civil Rights for freed slaves.
Who wrote Common Sense? Thomas Paine
Who said "A house divided against itself cannot stand." Abraham Lincoln
What was the economy of Appalachian foothills based upon? Small Scale Subsistence farming, Hunting, and Trading
Whose presence at the Battle of Yorktown benefited the Patriots leading to an American Victory? French
Name a document (written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton) that called for equal rights for women. Seneca Falls Convention
Who personified the "Democratic Spirit" of the age by challenging the economic elites? Andrew Jackson
What document made the destruction of slavery a Northern war aim? Emancipation Proclamation
When did Reconstruction end? Election of 1876
Who was the publisher of The Liberator? William Lloyd Garrison
Which court case is known as the doctrine of implied powers? McCulloch v. Maryland
What state did the United States acquire from a treaty with Spain? Florida
When was the Monroe Doctrine issued? What was it intended to do? 1823 - Intended to end colonization by European Countries in the Western Hemispere
What were some of the reasons that people moved west in the 1800's? Economic and Land Opportunities: Belief in Manifest Destiny
Who played an important role in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965? President Lyndon B. Johnson
Which Constitutional amendment ensures all citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous servitude? 15th Amendment
What forced President Nixon out of office? Watergate Scandal
Which was the only colony that did not attend the First Continental Congress? Georgia
What types of transportation supported the westward movement of settlers? Railroads and Travel Canals
What act repealed the Missouri Compromise? What year was it? Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
Which of the early colonies maintained an allegiance to the Church of England, as well as closer social ties to England? Virginia & the Southern Colonies
Name a black abolitionist who encourage Lincoln to recruit former enslaved African Americans for the Union Army? Frederick Douglass
How did the Korean War end? When was it? Stalemate - Early 1950's
In which battle was Hitler defeated by the British preventing access to Middle Eastern oil supplies? El Alamein
True or False? African Americans were generally assigned to support roles rather that combat roles in World War II True
At what event did the delegates from the colonies first act together to discuss problems with Great Britain and promote independence? First Continental Congress
What was a popular name for the Tariff of 1930? Hawley-Smoot Act
Name some of the technological advances over the last three decades? Space: Space Shuttle, Mars Rover, Hubble telescope: Communications: Satellites, GPS, personal communication: Robotics, Cell phones, World Wide Web, CNN 24 HR News, Cable TV, Personal Computers
What court case desegregated schools and overturned Plessy v. Ferguson? Brown v. Board of Education
What war in the 20th Century bitterly divided the United States in its support (Especially on College Campuses)? Vietnam War
Who has the power to decide if legislative acts or executive actions exceed the authority of the U.S. Constitution? United States Supreme Court
Name thes Industrial Leaders! Finance - Oil - Railroads - Steel - Finance - J.P. Morgan Oil - John D. Rockefeller Railroads - Cornelius Vanderbilt Steel - Andrew Carnegie
What were some of the internal problems of the Soviet Union that may have caused its collapse? Cost to compete with the United States, rising nationalism in the Soviet Republics, fast-paced reforms, economic inefficiency, "glastnost" and "perestroika"
Which Constitutional amendment called for the direct election of United States Senators? 17th Amendment
Who was the first female astronaut in the United States? Sally Ride
What was the strategy used by the Allies in Europe during World War II called? "Defeat Hitler First"
When and where was President John Kennedy assassinated? Dallas, Texas - 1963
What was the time period of the Cold War? From the end of World War II to the collapse of the Soviet Union
What did the Dred Scott decision do? Overturned the efforts to limit the spread of slavery outraged Northerners
Which court case ruled on an interstate travel (steamboats) as being under the court's jurisdiction--expanding the Court's authority? Gibbons v. Ogden
Who was the opposition party to the Federalists' after the Jay Treaty and other related events? Democratic-Republicans
Who was the President of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War? Jefferson Davis
What were some of the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? Weak national government, No power to tax, No Common Currency, 1 Vote per State, No executive or Judicial Branch
What gave America a claim to the Oregon Territory? American victory over British in the War of 1812
Who believed that equality for America could be achieved through vocational education? Booker T. Washington
Who was the Union general who won victories over the South after several Union commanders had failed. Ulysses S. Grant
Who argued that the sovereign states could nullify the Tariff of 1832? South Carolinians
Who opposed succession but did not believe that the Union should be held together by force? Robert E. Lee
What well-known book did Harriet Beecher Stowe write? Uncle Tom's Cabin
Where did American POW suffer brutal treatment by the Japanese after their surrender in the Philippines? Bataan Death March
What kind of Government did West Germany for after WWII? How about Japan? Both Democratic
What president was defeated by centrist William J. Clinton after only one term in office? Geroge H.W. Bush
Name some of the issues related to an immigration policy. Strain on Government services, border issues, filling low-paying jobs in the U.S., pathway to citizenship, bilingual education, increasing cultural diversity.
What were some of the causes of the Depression? Stock Market Crash of 1929, Stock prices collapsed, Federal Reserves failure to prevent collapse of banking systems, high protective Tariffs (Hawley-Smoot).
What played an essential role in assimilating immigrants into American society? Public Schools
What were some ways that the United States government and industry worked to allocate resources during World War II Rationing - War Bonds & Income Tax - Business changed from peacetime to wartime production
Who was the first woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court? Who was the second female U.S. Supreme Court justice? Sandra Day O'Conner - Ruth Bader Ginsburg
What caused the Japanese to surrender during World War II? The atomic bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki
What act expanded the Sherman Anti-Trust Act? What did it do? Clayton Anti-Trust Act - Outlawed price-fixing and exempted unions from the Sherman Act
Who was W.E.B. Dubois? African American who believed education was meaningless without equality. Helped form the NAACP
Name 2 leaders of slave revolts in Virginia. Nat Turner & Gabriel Prosser
Name each of these inventors: Telephone - Light Bulb - Airplane - Assembly Line - Telephone - Alexander Graham Bell Light Bulb - Thomas Edison Airplane - Wright Brothers Assembly Line - Henry Ford
What is genocide? The systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group
Who had a reform package called the Square Deal? Theodore Roosevelt
After the Civil War where did many of the European immigrants first enter America? Ellis Island in New York Harbor - With a view of the Statue of Liberty
During the Cuban Missile Crisis, who put missiles in Cuba? What was the year? Soviet Union - 1962
Who makes monetary decisions that control the supply of money and credit impacting the nation's economic growth? Federal Reserve
How did the American cowboy get his cattle to market in the late 1800's? Long cattle drives of hundreds of miles over unfenced open land in the West
From what country did Panama gain independence in the late 1800's? Columbia
Who fought in the "Miracle of Midway" and who was victorious? United States won over Japan
What Patriot was the general of the American Army during the Revolutionary War? George Washington
What were the "Jim Crow Laws"? Laws after Reconstruction that discriminated against African Americans
Name 2 minority military units who served with distinction during World War II. Tuskegee Airman & The Nisei Regiments
A legacy for the government to deliver public services and intervene in the economy came from what Depression act? The New Deal - Franklin D. Roosevelt
What was the forced march called that relocated American Indians far away from their homes? Trail of Tears
What oral communication code during World War II did the Japanese find impossible to break? Navajo
Who felt that the abolition of slavery would destroy their economy? Southerners
What was one way the Southern States were placated (pleased) during the Constitutional Convention? Slaves were counted at 3/5 of Population for representation in the House of Representatives
What opened the door to the "Jim Crow Era"? Compromise of 1877 which ended Reconstruction
What did the Emancipation Proclamation do? Freed slaves in seceding states
What were some of the occupations in the early Middle Colonies? Shipbuilding, Small scale Farming, and Trading
Where were the first armed conflicts of the Revolutionary War? Lexington & Concord
What did the fugitive slave acts do? Pitted Southern Slave owners against Northerners who refused to return escaped slaves.
What speech ends with "...government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth."? Gettysburg Address
What drew an East-West line through the Louisiana Purchase pertaining to slavery? Missouri Compromise of 1820
After what did California and the southwest territory become part of the United States? Mexican War
Name the responses that the United States made to terrorism? Patriot Act - Heightened security @ Home - Diplomatic and Military Initiatives
True of False? Early French explorers of Canada generally had cooperative relationships with the native people. True
On what principles did the Puritans form their "covenant community"? Mayflower Compact and Puritan Religious Beliefs
What Enlightenment thinker greatly influenced the American belief in self-government? John Locke
Who was the "woman" who represented American women working in defense plants during World War II? Rosie the Riveter
What were the two major countries involved in the Cold War? United States & Soviet Union
Name 2 members of the NAACP Legal Defense Team during Brown v. Board of Education era. Thurgood Marshall & Oliver Hill
What was "popular sovereignty"? States could make their own choice to allow/not allow slavery
What 2 Acts limited immigration in the years following the Civil War? Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 & Immigration Restriction Act of 1921
With what alliance was the U.S. associated after World War II? What about the Soviet Union? U.S. - NATO/ Soviet Union - Warsaw Pact
Who lead an anti-lynching crusade after Reconstruction calling on the federal government to take action? Ida B. Wells
Who was the first astronaut to: A) Orbit the Earth? B) Step on the Moon's Surface? A - John Glenn B - Neil Armstrong
What was one of the main reasons why many Americans began moving from rural to urban areas? Better Employment Opportunities
Who was President when Yugoslavia collapsed and the breakup of the Soviet Union occurred? George H.W. Bush
Adolph Hitler was the dictator of what country? Germany
What event began the liberation of Western Europe in World War II? When was this? D-Day or Normandy - June 6, 1944
Name 3 Soviet spies convicted during the Cold War. Alger Hiss & Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
What was the Homestead Act of 1862? Act that gave free land in the West to settlers who lived on & farmed it
What was McCarthyism? For whom was it named? Making fake accusations based on rumor or Guilt by association - Named after Senator Joseph McCarthy
After what war did the United States annex Puerto Rico and the Philippines? Spanish American War
True of False? The United States joined the League of Nations. False - U.S. Senate did not approve the Treaty of Versailles
What was President Eisenhower's stated policy for deterring a Soviet nuclear strike? "Massive Retaliation"
What were some of the features of The New Deal? Relief Programs (WPA) - Recovery Programs (AAA) - Reform Measures such as the FDIC & Social Security Act
What act outlawed literacy tests for voting resulting in increased voting among African Americans? Voting Rights Act of 1965
Who led a march of Washington in 1963 and gave an "I Have a Dream" speech? Martin Luther King Jr.
Name an immigrant group that helped with the building of the Transcontinental Railroad? Chinese
What was the Truman Doctrine? "Containment of Communism" - Keep it from Spreading - Guided American policy during the Cold War
Which Amendment gave women the right to vote? 19th Amendment
Who was President during World War 1? Woodrow Wilson
Who favored high Tariffs during the pre-Civil War Era? Northern States
Who was Abraham Lincoln's successor? Andrew Johnson
Name 2 Early Federalists. John Adams & Alexander Hamilton
Who believed that the Civil War was a "Second American Revolution"? Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln's assassination enabled what group to influence the process of Reconstruction? Radical Republicans
What was an emphasis in the "Virginia Plan"? Who wrote it? 3 Branches of Government (Legislative, Executive, and Judicial) - James Madison
Name the main 2 countries involved in the French and Indian War in North America. England & France
What was the "Great Migration" in the early 20th Century? African Americans traveled to Northern cities in search of jobs to escape poverty & discrimination in the South
What were some areas in which the Progressives made accomplishments? Reforms in local and State governments - elections - Child Labor - Labor Unions - Anti-trust Laws - Women's Suffrage
What countries occupied West Germany after World War 2? United States, Great Britain, and France
Who took over the rule of Cuba in the late 1950's? Fidel Castro
Who were the Tories? What was another name for the Tories? Those who remained loyal to England and believed that taxation was fair to help pay for their protection - Loyalists
When were the first Africans brought against their will to Jamestown? 1619
What was the opening confrontation of the Civil War? Fort Sumter
When did World War 1 begin in Europe? How long did America remain neutral in that war? 1914 - Remained neutral for 3 years
Who was president on 9/11/2001? George W. Bush
What did the Geneva Convention attempt to do? Ensure Humane treatment of prisoners of war with rules to be followed by all nations
Who said, "Mr. Gorbachev tear down this wall"? President Ronald Reagan
What was President Taft's policy urging American Banks and businesses to invest in Latin America called? Dollar Diplomacy
Where is Pearl Harbor? When was it bombed? Hawaii - December 7, 1941
Many Japanese were placed into these during World War 2? Internment Camps
What was the starting point of World War 2? Hitlers invasion of Poland in 1939
Who prepared a plan for peace that called for a League of Nations? What was his planned called? Woodrow Wilson - Fourteen Points
What was Nixon's policy of withdrawing American troops and replacing them with South Vietnamese forces called? Vietnamization
After World War 2 did the communist countries of China and the Soviet Union become allies or rivals? Rivals - President Nixon exploited in 1970's
When the Federalist Party disappeared what 2 new parties were organized? Whigs & Know-Nothings
Compare the lives of indentured servants and enslaved Africans. Indentured Servant - Free at the end of contract Slaves - Viewed as Property, no rights, no choice
What were some of the "cash crops" grown in early Virginia and the Southern Colonies for export to Europe? Tobacco, Rice, Indigo
Which Constitutional Amendment banned slavery? 13th Amendment
What were the key ideas of the Fourteen Points? Self-Determination, Freedom of the Seas, League of Nations, and Mandate System
What has provided the United States with an expanded source of scientists and engineers--and diversity in music and the arts? Immigrants
What Famous Trial argued for traditional religion over Darwin's theory of evolution? Scopes Trial
What was the first war where American Women could serve? When was this war? Persian Gulf War - 1990-1991
During the Gilded Age what were the businessmen who dominated industries and amassed huge personal fortunes called? Robber Barons
Which President initiated full diplomatic relations with Vietnam--and lifter economic sanctions when Apartheid ended in South Africa? William J. Clinton
What "revolution" is credited with the Republican sweep of congressional elections and statehouses in the 1900's? "Reagan Revolution"
What was the plan to rebuild Europe after World War 2 called? Marshall Plan
Who proposed an Open Door Policy to give all Nations equal trading rights with China? Secretary of State John Hay
Under what President did the American buildup in Vietnam begin? President John F. Kennedy
What were the Articles of Confederation? First Constitution for new National Government. Adopted at the end of the Revolutionary War
Who were the "Cavaliers"? English nobility who received large land grants in Virginia from the King of England
What was one of England's main reasons for taxing the colonies? To pay for the French and Indian War
What are the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution called? Bill of Rights
What war had no actual fighting but was a competition that divided the world into 2 camps? The Cold War
What was the first American presidential election where power was peacefully transferred from one party to another? Thomas Jefferson - Election of 1800
What was the Boston Massacre? British soldiers fired on Anti-British Demonstrators
Did the Northerners or Southerners mostly mostly believe that the national government's power was supreme? Northerners
The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by what groups of people? English, Dutch, and Germans
True of False? Thomas Paine was a German Immigrant. False - He was an English Immigrant
Which came first--The Constitution of the Declaration of Independence? Declaration of Independence
Created by: mkdockery