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history-cold war

Winston Churchill -British Prime Minister -iron curtain
"iron curtain" the notional barrier separating the former Soviet bloc and the West prior to the decline of communism that followed the political events in eastern Europe in 1989
Deterrence the action of discouraging an action or event through instilling doubt or fear of the consequences
Sun Yat-sen -united radical groups in forming Nationalist Party -three stage reform process -Three People's Principles
Chiang Kai-shek -replaced Sun-Yat sen -pretends to support alliance but attacks Communists at Shanghai -creates a new Chinese republic at Nanjing
Kuomintang (Nationalists) governed all or part of mainland China from 1928 to 1949 and subsequently ruled Taiwan under Chiang Kai-shek and his successors for most of the time since then
Long March -Mao’s army travelled 6,000 in order to reach the last surviving Communist base -started with 90,000 but ended with 9,000
Mao Zedong -a revolution would occur from the peasants in the country side not by urban workers -used guerilla tactics against the Nationalist -surrounded by Chiang’s army, Mao’s PLA broke though Nationalists lines and began the famous Long March
Taiwan KMT government exile
Berlin Wall guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin
John F. Kennedy -pledged to strengthen American military forces and promised a tough stance against the Soviet Union and international communism -warned of the Soviet's growing arsenal of intercontinental missiles and pledged to revitalize American nuclear forces
Fidel Castro -Cuban leader -Bay of Pigs -Cuban Missile Crisis
Bay of Pigs failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961
trade embargo commercial, economic, and financial embargo imposed by the United States on Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis -13-day confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with Soviet missile deployment in Cuba -closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war
38th Parallel formed the border between North and South Korea prior to the Korean War
stalemate a position counting as a draw, in which a player is not in check but cannot move except into check
armistice an agreement made by opposing sides in a war to stop fighting for a certain time; a truce
Kim Jong-un Chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea and supreme leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
17th Parallel provisional military demarcation line established in Vietnam by the Geneva Accords
Viet Cong National Liberation Front, was a political organization with its own army – People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam – in South Vietnam and Cambodia
Tet Offensive North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces launched a coordinated series of fierce attacks on more than 100 cities and towns in South Vietnam
Lyndon B. Johnson American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969
Cold War the period of political tension following WW2 and ending with the fall of the Soviet Union
Tehran Conference who Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill
Tehran Conference when November 1943
Tehran Conference where Tehran
Tehran Conference why to decide the future course of the war
Tehran Conference end result final assault on Germany, an American-British invasion through France
Tehran Conference consequences -Soviet and British-American forces would meet in a defended Germany and a north-south dividing line -Soviet forces would liberate eastern Europe
Yalta Conference who Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill
Yalta Conference when February 1945
Yalta Conference where southern Russia
Yalta Conference why -Stalin wanted a buffer to protect the Soviet Union from a possible future Western aggression -this meant establishing pro-Soviet governments along the USSR's borders -however Roosevelt wanted self-determination for Europe
Yalta Conference end result -a pledge to help liberated Europe create free elections -Roosevelt agreed to Stalin's price for military aid against Japan -creation of the United Nations
Yalta Conference consequences -Stalin did not honor the pledge of free elections -this caused a split between the Soviets and Americans
Potsdam Conference who Truman, Stalin
Potsdam Conference when July 1945
Potsdam Conference where Potsdam
Potsdam Conference end result trials would be held of leaders who had committed crimes against humanity during the war
West vs. Soviet views on eachother West: thought Soviet Policy was part of a worldwide Communist conspiracy Soviets: viewed Western, especially American, policy as nothing less than global capitalist expansionism
iron curtain it had descended across the continent dividing Europe into two hostile camps
views on free elections -U.S.+Britain: believed that the liberated nations of eastern Europe should freely determine their own governments -USSR: Stalin feared that these nations would be anti-Soviet if they were permitted free elections, opposed the West's plans
control of Greece -civil war -Communist People's Liberation Army and Anti-Communist forces supported by Britain -fought for control of Greece -Britain had their own economic problems, so they had to withdraw
Truman Doctrine definition policy of the U.S. to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures
Truman Doctrine rationale -U.S. would also provide aid to other countries threatened by communist expansion -if the Soviet expansion was not stopped in Greece and Turkey, the Truman argument ran, then the U.S. would have to face the spread of communism
Marshall Plan believed that communism was successful in countries with economic problems, thus, to prevent the spread of communism, the Marshall Plan provided $13 billion to rebuild war torn Europe
COMECON -Council for Mutual Economic Assistance -economic cooperation of the Eastern European states -failed because the Soviet Union was unable to provide financial aid
policy of containment keep communism within its existing boundaries and prevent further Soviet aggressive moves
division of Germany -Britain, France, and U.S. were making plans to unify the 3 Western sections of Germany and create a West German Gov. -Soviets opposed this -Soviets attempted to prevent it by putting a blockade of West Berlin
division of Germany 2 -supplies would have to flown in by American and British airplanes -Soviets lifted blockade
what two events happened in 1949? 1. Federal Republic of Germany was created (west) 2. German Democratic Republic was created
arms race both countries built up their armies and weapons
NATO -North Atlantic Treaty Organization -Belgium, Luxemburg, France, Netherlands, Britain, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal and Iceland signed a treaty with the U.S. and Canada
Warsaw Pact Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
deterrence -held that huge arsenals of nuclear weapons on both sides prevented war -the belief was that neither side would launch a nuclear attack, because both knew that the other side would be able to strike back with devastating power
what happened in 1957 to put fear in Americans? Soviets sent Sputnik 1, the first human-made satellite, to orbit Earth
causes of the Cold War W what they believed (ideologies) -communism vs. democracy
causes of the Cold War A aims -reparations from Germany and a buffer of friendly states vs. democracy and help Germany to recover
causes of the Cold War R resentment about history -Russian Revolution destruction vs. Nazi-Soviet Pact
causes of the Cold War E events -series of events slowly broke down the alliance and turned the allies into enemies
salami tactics what happened? from 1946-1947 Stalin made sure that Communist governments came to power in all of the Eastern European countries
salami tactics where does this name come from? Hungarian communist Rakosi described this process as "slicing salami"-gradually getting rid of the opposition bit-by-bit
George Kennan U.S. diplomat who wrote that the U.S. should not allow communism to spread, and that it should be contained to the Soviet Union
ideologies of the Cold War east-government -one party state -only the Communist Party is allowed -the country is run by elected councils called Soviets
ideologies of the Cold War west-government -democratic state -many people are allowed to stand in elections -the leader of the party which wins an election becomes the head of the government
ideologies of the Cold War east-human rights -strict limits on many human and civil rights -limits on free speech, travel, worship, etc -dissidents (people who try to break those limits) risk imprisonment
ideologies of the Cold War west-human rights -fewer limits -some rights are guaranteed by law
ideologies of the Cold War east-social -average living standards lower than in the West -wealth more evenly distributed, so fewer people are either rich or poor
ideologies of the Cold War west-social -average living standards higher in the East -wealth distributed unevenly, so there are more poor people than in the East
ideologies of the Cold War east-economy -government-run economy -factories, farms, mines, shops, etc. are publicly owned -profits used for the public good
ideologies of the Cold War west-economy -free-market economy -farms, factories, mines, shops, etc. are privately owned -profits go to the company
ideologies of the Cold War east-culture -media is owned and run by the government -newspapers, books, films, radio, and TV are strictly censored
causes of the Korean War D domino theory -in the far east, Communists were becoming too powerful (China became communist in 1949, North Korea had Soviet influence) -President Truman believed if one country fell to communism, then others would follow -if Korea->communist, Japan2
causes of the Korean War U undermine communism -on April 1950, the American National Security Council issued a report recommending America to abandon "containment" and start "rolling back" communism
causes of the Korean War C Cold War -Truman realized the U.S. was in competition for world domination with the Soviets -by supporting South Korea, the U.S. was able to fight communism without directly fighting the USSR
causes of the Korean War K Kim II-Sung -had visited Stalin and persuaded him in 1949 that he could conquer South Korea -met with Mao Zedong -Stalin did not think the U.S. would get involved -Stalin saw a chance to continue the Cold War and discomfort the U.S. at arms length
causes of the Korean War S Syngman Rhee -boasted he was going to attacked North Korea
what happened to Korea after WW2? it was divided into zones of occupation between the Allied Powers
the north was influenced by the Soviet Union and under the influence of... Kim-II Sung
the south was influenced by the U.S. and under the leadership of... Syngman Rhee
what happened on June 25, 1950? North Korea crosses the 38th parallel
what did the UN call for after the war began? military assistance for South Korea
who led the amphibious invasion of Inchon? UN forces under the command of Douglas MacArthur
what happened on October 25, 1950? Chinese launched counterattack
what happened in April 1951 concerning General Douglas MacArthur? he repeatedly challenged presidential authority and even considered launching nuclear weapons...he was fired
the last two years of the Korea War were defined by... a bloody stalemate
what happened on July 27, 1953? the armistice was signed
DMZ -demilitarized zone -buffer zone patrolled by North Korean, South Korean, United States, and UN troops
why is the Korean War referred to as the "Forgotten War?" because it was overshadowed by other wars
the Korean War was the first war where... 1. first and only time American and Soviet armed forces would ever face eachother in military combat 2. first time the UN intervened in a conflict with military force
how was the UN different from the League of Nations? the UN was keen to demonstrate that it had teeth and wanted to avoid the appeasement strategy
what was Khrushchev's desire/wish for the Soviet Union? -pursue a policy of peaceful co-existence with the West -domestically de-Stalinize
what was Khrushchev's relationship like with the U.S.? -visited the U.S. (unlike Stalin) -1960: USSR shot down an American U-2 spy plane -approved the construction of the Berlin Wall (East vs. West) -Bay of Pigs/Cuban Missile Crisis
how did Khrushchev de-Stalinize the Soviet Union? -criticized Stalin in a speech -city of Stalingrad renamed -Stalin's remains were removed from Lenin's mausoleum -loosened government control of literacy and artistic works -reduced the power of the Soviet Union's secret police
what did Khrushchev do domestically? -worked to increase agricultural production and raise living standards -opened up the country to foreign visitors -inaugurated the space age with the launch of Sputnik
how did Khrushchev fall from power? -lost prestige from other officials due to break with China and food shortages -forced to resign in 1964 from positions of premier and head of Communist Party
what steps did Khrushchev take to become the leader of the Soviet Union? 1918: joined the Communist Bolsheviks 1929: moved to Moscow where the rose through the Communist Party ranks, ultimately entered inner circle of Stalin WW2: mobilized troops to fight Germany in Ukraine and Stalingrad 1953-1957: head of Communist Party
when Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China, what was one of the first things he did? -signed the Treaty of Friendship with the Soviet Union -U.S. feared the spread of communism
National People's Congress National Legislature
People's Liberation Army (PLA) controlled the armed forces
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) had the real power -central committee: top party -Politiburo: select group from Central Committee
Agrarian Reform Law of 1950 -holdings of landowners seized -those who resisted were killed -land was then divided among peasants -peasants were forced to join collective farms
First Five-Year Plan -rapid industrialization through central planning. emphasis on heavy industry -agriculture-secondary -production of consumer goods: lowest priority
Second Five-Year Plan Great Leap Forward -focus on both industrial and agricultural output -high goals for increases in iron and steel -peasants could make steel during times of agricultural year -unite the cooperative farms into communes
how was the Great Leap Forward a failure? -due to floods and bad harvests, agricultural productions had not come close to expectations, and reports of massive steel production proved to be false -one of the worst man-made famines in history -Mao was pushed aside, rivals controlled China
Liu Shaoqi -became new leader after Great Leap Forward -took a more pragmatic approach -economy slowly began to grow -saw the irse of technical and intellectual class that was like old times, decided to act -Mao was waiting for return
what were the goals of the Cultural Revolution? -launched to purge the country of bourgeois values and the enemies of communism -main focus was the abolishment of Old Fours
Old Fours -old customs -old culture -old habits -old ideas
Red Guards young people, workers, and army members whos role was to attack the "old fours" of society
Little Red Book -was published by the Government of the People's Republic of China -collection of quotations excerpted from Mao's past speeches and publications -requirement for every Chinese citizen to own, to read, and to carry at all times
what happened during the Cultural Revolution? why? what was the purpose/goal? -students: refused to take exams -teachers: deemed as counterrevolutionaries -disruption in education -writers and scientists attacked -abolish all insignia of rank in army -eliminate all distinctions of rank in society
what were the effects of the Cultural Revolution? -success in political objective -severely damaged economy -millions persecuted -historical artifacts and cultural religious sites destroyed
Lin Bao Mao's successor
between 1800 and 1956, Vietnam was a colony of... France
Ho Chi Minh -leader of North Vietnam -lead the Viet Minh independence -wanted independence
how does the U.S. initially become involved with Vietnam? U.S. sends money and airplanes to help the French
Geneva Accords -held in Geneva, Switzerland -ceasefire agreed upon between France and the Viet Minh
how did Eisenhower feel about the Geneva Accords? did not support (or sign) the Accords
what was Eisenhower's Cold War policy? supported the creation of a pro-western democracy (counter revolutionary alternative) south of the 17th Parallel
Ngo Dinh Diem -leader of South Vietnam -anti communism/nationalist -supported by U.S.
Gulf of Tonkin -North Vietnam launched a local attack against the C. Turner Joy and the USS Maddox (two American ships) -Gulf of Tonkin resolution gave President Johnson power to conduct military operations without officially declaring war
Operation Rolling Thunder -U.S. would begin bombing operations over North Vietnam -U.S. military aircraft attacked targets in North Vietnam
what was the purpose of Operation Rolling Thunder? to put military pressure on NV and reduce their capacity to wage war
how was Vietnam fought? Guerilla Warfare
napalm -flammable liquid -used as weapon -sticks to skin and causes severe burns when on fire
Agent Orange defoliant chemical used by the U.S.
Richard Nixon wins the election with his pledge to end the war and bring the American troops
when did the Vietnam War officially end? Nixon reaches an agreement with North Vietnam (Paris Peace Accords)
what happened two years later? Vietnam is forcibly reunited by Communist armies from the North
Berlin Blockade Soviets tried to cut off West Berlin by closing the main road that led them into the city
containment stopping the spread of communism by standing up to the Soviets wherever they seemed to want to explore
what other areas of the world were involved in the Cold War? -Afghanistan -Nicaragua -El Salvador -Guatemala -Egypt -Hungary -Czechoslovakia
Mikhail Gorbachev -leader of Soviet Union after Stalin -created Glasnost and Perestroika
Glasnost -began to give more rights back to the people -encouraged general openness with other nations in the Cold War
Perestroika -fixed economic, social, and political problems -main goal was to make the SU more Americanized by allowing more choice and freedom to the public
how was Gorbachev kicked from the presidency? overthrown by a coup led by Boris Yeltsin
when and where did the unraveling of the SU occur? Poland in Jun 1989
what did Gorbachev propose the Union Treaty? wanted to maintain the territorial integrity of the SU
Sun Yat-Sen's Three Stage Reform Process -military takeover -Sun’s own people would prepare for democratic rule -constitutional democracy
Sun Yat Sen's Three People's Principles -nationalism -democracy -right for people to pursue their own livelihoods
Revolution of 1911 -Sun’s people revolted in central China -Sun was in United States  (NO LEADER) -Qing Dynasty collapsed
Yuan Shigai -understood little of new ideas coming from the West -tried dictatorial efforts (dissolved parliament) -Sun Yat-sen party launched a rebellion -failure and Sun fled to Japan -died in 1916, but country slipped into Civil War known as the Warlord Era
Nationalist/Communist Alliance With the help of the Soviet Union the Nationalist and the Communist Party in China formed an alliance in 1923 to oppose the warlords and drive out imperialist powers
Created by: amandathornton



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