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overview of anaerobe

ch 42

predominantly do not grow in the presence of O2
reservoir Clostridium botulinum and C. tetani soil and environment
similarities of Bacillus spp and Clostridium spp differences between the 2 same : make spores, difference: respiration. Bacillus is facultative anaerobe and Clostridium is an anaerobe
Most anaerobes are normal flora
reservoir of pathogenic anaerobes is soil and water
outdoor anaerobes make spores
most anaerobes gain access to a sterile site as a result of disruption of an anatomic barrier
infection originating in a hospital nosocomial
Clostridium difficile is a significant example of this transmission type nosocomial
outdoor anaerobes reside in soil, vegetation, GI tract of mammals
Species that produces potent and lethal toxins, can be used in biowarfare. Clostridium
poisoned by O2, gather at the bottom of the tube obligate anaerobe
clostridium 5 characteristics gram + rods, obligate anaerobes, cat neg, form spores, differentiated by shock spore test
Ethanol shock spore isolation ethanol is added to a culture 1 hr before innoculating on anaerobic plate. Ethanol has no effect on spores.
following ethanol shock spore test clostridium endospores germinate on innoculation
spores are produced only what condition anaerobic conditions
Clostridium species are widespread in nature because endospores
In human and animals clostridium is normal flora of GI tract
C. perfringes gram stain Gram pos rod with spores
C. perfringes virulence exotoxins
C. perfringes toxin mediated destruction of tissue after traumatic introduction, commonly called or gas gangrene or myonecrosia
C perfringes causes food intoxication from foods like rice that are reheated over and over. Illness is not from the infection its from the toxin. Food poisoning
C. perfringes on BAP shows B hemolysis
C. botulinum gram stain and cultivation Large fastidious spore forming rods
C botunlinum virulence factor neurotoxin
what 3 infections / diseases does C. botulinum produce? food borne botulism, infant botulism, wound botulism
botulism from spores, found in canned foods (no O2), not food poisoning. Absorption of the toxin leads to flaccid paralysis. foodborne botulism
Occurs when the organism produced the toxin after it has colonized GI tract of infants -honey, powdered milk, dust - all nonpastuerized sources infant botulism
Botulism that occurs when C. botulinum produces the toxin from an infected wound site. wound botulism
Produces toxins A and B that may cause diseases from self-limiting diarrhea to severe, life threatening pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). Clostridium difficile
persistance and spread in hospitals of C. difficile from spores
in C. difficile overgrowth of intestinal flora in patients on antibiotics antibiotic resistance
specimen used in C. difficile culture and toxin assays fresh stool
C. difficile can be plated to 2 types of agar Cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA) and Anaerobic blood agar
Appearance of mo - Large, motile, spore forming rod terminal spores give appearance of a drumstick. C. tetani
virulence in C. tetani tetanospasmin (neurotoxin)
action of tetanospasmin disrupts nerve impulses to the muscles.
Clostridium difficult to grow due to extreme oxygen sensitivity tetani
Treatment for tetanus debridement, antimicrobials, antitoxin and vaccination (dpt)
except for food intoxication, clostridium is 100% fatal if untreated
Created by: nawchem