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ch 40

N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae

N. meningitidis often referred to as meningococcus
N. meningitidis causes meningitis and meningococcemia (sepsis)
meningococcemia is life threatening sepsis
in the gram stain the organisms appear round and in pairs
gram stain neg diplococcus
N. miningitidis is 1. oxidase 2. morphology 3. gram stain 1. pos 2. diplococus 3. gram negative
no cure but there is a vaccine
N. meningitidis is the only meningitis known to cause epidemics
N. meningitidis is the main cause of what in children and young adults bacterial meningitis
Organism requires iron from its host. this may be the reason it only infects humans
how is it transmitted? thru the exchange of saliva and other respiratory secretions
it infects the host cell be adhering by means of fimbrae
meningitis initially produces general symptoms like fatigue
it can rapidly progress to fever, headache, neck stiffness coma and death
death occurs in 10%
suspicion of meningitis is a medical emergency
if meningococcal meningitis or septicemia is suspected what should be done IV antibiotics
severe complication of meningitis is waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome
waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome can cause DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation)
DIC causes clots, no oxygen gets to the tissues, cause of amputation
Meningococcal septcemia causes a purpuric rash that does not lose its color when pressed with a glass (nonblanching glass test) and does not cause typical symptoms, so the condition maybe ingnored.
Septicemia has what mortality rate 50%
Anyone with a non-blanching rash is advised to go to the hospital asap
N. meningitidis is pyogenic, so there are many xxx in the gram stain neutrophils
what agars does N. meningitidis grow SAP (sheep blood agar), choc
identification depends on specimen source
isolates from children or those who may have been sexually abused must be unequivocably identified
isolates from genital sites are presumptively identified
presumptive test oxidase positive, gram neg diplococci, growth on gonococcal selective agar
eye and ear cultures that are presumptively positive but hydrolyze tributyrin are M. catarrhalis
Neisseria don't hydrolyze tributyrin
N. gonorrhoeae is a significant pathogen of the urogenital tract
N. gonorrhoeae is a major cause of sexually transmitted diseases
gonorrhoeae may be purulent or make pus
gonorrhoeae symptoms differ depending on the site of infection
gonorrhoeae 10% of infected males and 80% of infected females are asymptomatic
gonorrhoeae Infection of the genitals may result in a purulent discharge from the genitals which may foul smelling
gonorrhoeae symptoms may include inflammation (redness, swelling) and cause painful urination
gonorrhoeae are localized to mucosal surfaces
In addition to genital disease can cause conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, proctitis or urethritis, prostatitis and orchitis. N. gonorrhoeae
gonorrhoeal conjunctivitis is common in neonates
neonatal gonorrheal conjunctivitis is contracted in the birth canal and can result in blindness
disseminated N. gonorrhoeae infections can occur, resulting in endocarditis, meningitis, gonococcal dernatitis-arthritis syndrome
infection of the genitals in females with N. gonorrhoeae can result in pid
untreated pelvic inflammatory disease can lead to infertility
the percentage of PID leading to infertility from N. gonorrhoeae infection is 10-20%
A severe complication of N. memingitidis caused by adrenal insufficiency and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
Created by: nawchem



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