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Woodrow Wilson -LON -14 Points
Fourteen Points statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I
League of Nations international organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, created after the First World War to provide a forum for resolving international disputes
collective securit the cooperation of several countries in an alliance to strengthen the security of each
Rhineland loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine River, chiefly its middle section
appeasement a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid conflict
Anschluss "connection" or "joining" is the term used to describe the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany
Sudetenland western areas of Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by ethnic German speakers
isolationism a policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of other groups, especially the political affairs of other countries
neutrality acts laws passed in 1935, 1936, 1937, and 1939 to limit U.S. involvement in future wars
propaganda information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view
Douglas MacArthur -American general -commanded Southwest Pacific -oversaw the successful Allied occupation of postwar Japan -led United Nations forces in the Korean War
partisans member of an armed group formed to fight secretly against an occupying force
what was the League of Nations task? to make sure war never broke out again
why was the choice for the League of Nations to be in Switzerland natural? Switzerland was a neutral country and had not fought in the Great War
what was the 1st step the LON could do to stop a dispute? -could call on the states in dispute to sit down and discuss the problem in an orderly and peaceful manner -if one nation was seen to be the offender, the League could intro duce VERBAL SANCTIONS
verbal sanctions warning an aggressor that she would need to leave another nation's territory or face the consequences
what was the 2nd step the LON could do to stop a dispute? -ECONOMIC SANCTIONS -purpose was to financially hit the aggressor nation so that she would have to do as the League required -logic was to push an aggressor nation towards bankruptcy, so that the people in that state would take out their anger on gov
what was the 3rd step the LON could do to stop a dispute? -PHYSCIAL SANCTIONS -military force would be used to put into place the League's decision -League did not have a military force at its disposal and no member of the League had to provide one under the terms of joining
what were the LON's weaknesses? -no military -America refused to join -Germany and Russia could not join -France and Britain both suffered financially and militarily during the war
Manchuria dispute -Japan tried to overcome the depression by building up an empire -invaded Manchuria -threw out Chinese -set up own government
Manchuria what the league did -sent officials to study the problem (took a year) -ordered Japan to leave Manchuria
Manchuria what happened -Japan refused to leave Manchuria -Japan left League of Nations -League could not agree on sanctions or even a ban on weapon sales -Britain and France did not want a war, so nothing was done -Japanese stayed in Manchuria
Abyssinia dispute -Mussolini got ready to invade Abyssinia (Ethiopia) -wanted war and glory -Abyssinia asked League for help
Abyssinia what the league did -talked to Mussolini -Mussolini used the time to send an army to Africa -League suggested a plan to give part of Abyssinia to Italy
Abyssinia what happened -Mussolini ignored the League -invaded Abyssinia -League banned weapons sales, put sanctions on rubber and metal -Britain and France secretly agreed to give Abyssinia to Italy -Italy conquered Abyssinia
why did Hitler set his eyes on the Soviet Union? -land would be resettled by German peasants -Slavic peoples could be used as slave labor to build the 3rd Reich
how did Hitler violate the Treaty of Versailles? -announced creation of air force -began a military draft that would expand Germany's army from 100,000 to 550,000 troops
why could France, Great Britain, and Italy not do much about it? because of the Great Depression they were distracted by their own internal problems
what happened on March 7, 1936 and why was this action a violation of the Treaty of Versailles? -Hitler sent German troops into the Rhineland -Rhineland was a demilitarized area; Germany was not permitted to have weapons or fortifications there
how did Great Britain react to the above event? -they did not support the use of force against Germany -viewed the occupation of German territory as a reasonable action by a dissatisfied power
appeasement if European states satisfied the reasonable demands of dissatisfied power, the dissatisfied powers would be content, and stability and peace would be achieved in Europe
what did Mussolini do that angered Britain and France? invaded Ethiopia
Rome-Berlin Axis alliance between Germany and Italy
Anti-Comintern Pact Germany and Japan signed, promised a common front against communism
describe the relationship between Germany and Austria -Hitler threatened Austria with invasion -forced Austrian chancellor to put Austrian Nazis in charge of the government -new government promptly invited German troops to enter Austria and "help" in maintain law and order
what was decided at the Munich Conference? German troops were allowed to occupy the Sudetenland
why is this considered the "high point of Western appeasement" Hitler promised to make no more demands
did Hitler keep his promise to Neville Chamberlain of not making any more demands? no, because he began to demand the Polish part of Danzig
why did Hitler sign the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact? he feared that the West and the Soviet Union might make an alliance that would mean a two-front war for Germany
what was promised in this pact? promised Stalin control of eastern Poland and Baltic states
what happened September 1, 1939? German forces invaded Poland
What happened September 3, 1939? Britain and France declared war on Germany
what is the S in SCRAMCUP? SAAR Plebiscite
what is the C in SCRAMCUP? Conscription and Re-armament
what is the R in SCRAMCUP? Rhineland
what is the A in SCRAMCUP? Anschluss (Austria)
what is the M in SCRAMCUP? Munich Conference
what is the C in SCRAMCUP? Czechoslovakia
what is the U in SCRAMUP? USSR/Nazi Pact
what is the P in SCRAMCUP? Poland
SAAR Plebiscite -SAAR valley controlled by League of Nations -1935: plebiscite (vote) *return to Germany or stay independent? *propaganda opportunity for Hitler *results? 90.3%=return to Germany -Hitler announced he had no more territorial demands to make of France
Conscription and Re-armament -1935:Hitler reintroduced conscription -violation of Treaty -France and Britain don't react
Rhineland -was to be a de-militarized zone, according to Treaty of Versailles -1936: Germany remilitarizes Rhineland
Munich Conference -Hitler demanded Sudetenland -1938: First: Hitler demands union w/Germany Second: Hitler plans invasion
Sudetenland borders of Czechoslovakia, mainly inhabited by ethnic Germans
Munich Conference who? -Adolf Hitler -Benito Mussolini -Neville Chamberlin -Edvoard Daladier
Munich Conference Munich Pact -permits Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland -Hitler promised to go no further-no further territorial expansion
Munich Conference legacy appeasement
Czechoslovakia -1939: Germany invaded rest of Czechoslovakia -Britain=outraged -Britain began to realize that war was only method to stop Hitler
USS/Nazi Port -Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact -by 1939, Hitler wants to invade Poland (fears reparations) -August 1939: -Germans and Soviet Union agree not to fight -Hitler wanted to prevent war w/ Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France
Poland -1939: First: demanded union w/ Danzig Second: Hitler threatened war -Chamberlin promised to protect Poles from German invasion -September 1, 1939: Hitler invaded Poland -Great Britain and France declare war on Germany
describe early Japan -society based on feudalism -power was in the hands of the shogun (military general) -1600's ruled by Tokugawa shoguns -became isolationists -only Dutch had limited trade
who made contact with Japan in 1853? -a fleet of well armed American ships came to Tokyo Bay -forces were led by commodore Matthew Perry
what was the outcome of that contact? -U.S. forced extraterritorial rights -after the opium war, Japan was convinced that it had to open up to the West
Treaty of Kanagawa -unable to defend itself, Japan opened two ports to the U.S. -other European countries demanded the same rights -Japan felt humiliated -blamed the shogun for not taking a stand
how did Japan react to the treaty? -Japanese overthrew the last shogun and put their emperor in charge -ended its policy of isolationism
what was Japan's new slogan? Japanese spirit; Western technology!
Meiji Restoration Japanese period beginning in 1858 when Japan went from a non-industrial feudal nation to a modern, industrial and imperial country
Meiji reforms/countries adopted form -abolished the feudal system -land redistribution -westernize the school system (France and Germany) -modernize army (Prussian)
Meiji reforms/countries adopted form 2 -built a modern navy (British) -emperor worship intensified -human rights and religious freedom -written constitution -modern banking system
in order for Japan to industrialize, they must... imperialize
Sino-Japanese War -Japan goes to war with China for influence in Korea -Japan wins
outcome of Sino-Japanese War Japan gains control of ports in China, as well as Taiwan
Russo-Japanese War -Japan goes to war with Russia over power in Korea and Manchuria -Japan wins
outcome of Russo-Japanese War -Korea becomes a protectorate -Japan gains rights in parts of Manchuria
by 1910 Japan annexes... Korea
describe Japan in the 1920's -to strengthen their relationships w/ other countries, they drew back from some imperial goals -1922: signed an agreement w/ U.S. to limit size of navy -Emperor Hirohito will rule from 1926-1989 -The Great Depression devastates Japan
who controls the government in Manchuria? military
describe the Manchurian incident invaded for resources
how does the LON react? condemns action
what does Japan do? leaves LON
what was Japan's reason to grow? idea was to liberate Asian nations from Western powers
what was Japan's goal? to create a Japanese empire
what does Japan do as the war breaks out? looks to grab European possessions -oil, rubber, tin
how does the U.S. react? bans the sale of all war materials (sanctions)
Allied Powers -Great Britain, Poland, France, Austrailia -Soviet Union -U.S., China
Axis Powers Germany, Italy, Japan
Rome-Berlin Axis-who? Germany and Italy
Anti-Comintern Pact-who? Germany and Japan
Pact of Steel-who? Germany and Italy
Tripartite Pact-who? Germany, Italy, and Japan
what countries were part of the Grand Alliance? Soviet Union, U.S., Great Britain
who was the leader of the U.S.? Franklin D. Roosevelt
who was the leader of Britain? Winston Chruchill
who was the leader of Japan? Hideki Tojo
what were the broad causes of WW11? -destruction caused by WW1 -failure of WW1 peace settlements -global economic depression -British/French appeasement -acts of aggression by Axis Powers -weakness of the League of Nations -militaristic, nationalist leaders in Germany, Italy, andJapan
blitzkrieg lightning war
what does this entail? -airplanes would bomb enemy cities, roads, airfields -soldiers and civilians were machine-gunned from the air -armored tanks (panzer divisions) would roll through
how successful was Germany in using this strategy at the beginning of the war? -Germany crushed Poland in 3-4 weeks -Poland divided between Germany and USSR -April-May 1940 *Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, stop France
Battle of France -Maginot Line not crossed by the Germans -went through Belgium instead
Battle of Dunkirk -French troops and British army trapped on the beaches of Dunkirk -Royal Navy and civilians in private boats helped evacuate the soldiers
what was the end result? -armistice signed on June 22, 1940 -Germany now occupied 3/5 of France -now known as Vichy France
Maginot Line French defense system, series of concrete and steel fortifications armed with heavy artillery
why did the U.S. not get involved? -followed a strict policy of isolationism - a series of neutrality acts prevented the U.S. from taking sides or becoming involved in any European Wars
Battle of Britain -Hitler tried to bomb British into surrendering -gain control of air, then amphibious (water--> land) invasion -first military targets, then cities -September 1940: began bombing London
what was the outcome? -no success -British pilots and anti-aircraft guns hot down so many planes that Hitler gave up -Radar helped the British defeat Germany
Operation Barbarossa -early success for Germany -early winter and fierce Soviet resistance halted the German advance -no winter uniforms, had attacked in June and believed could be defeated before winter set in
how did the Soviet Union respond? -used scorched-earth policy -Germans forced to surrender -from then on, Soviet forces kept pushing Germans back
when and why did the U.S. enter the war? -December 7, 1941 -Japan attacks Pearl Harbor -FDR declares war on Japan the next day -U.S. enters the war on the side of the Allied Powers
Battle of Coral Sea -May 1942 -off coast of Australia -aerial battle between planes launched from carriers (first time in history) -U.S. blocked the invasion of Australia -strategic allied victory
Battle of Midway -June 1942 -around Midway Island in the Central Pacific -destroyed four Japanese carriers and 250 planes -turning point in war
what was the significance of the Battle of Midway? it was the first time U.S. took the offense, and the last time Japan was able to be on the offense
island-hopping military strategy employed by the allies in the Pacific
what was the purpose of island-hopping? Concentrate limited Allied resources on strategically important islands that were not well defended but capable of supporting the drive to the main islands of Japan -bypass fortified Japanese positions
Battle of Guadalcanal -August 1942-Feb. 1943 -Americans win first major land victory -U.S. used Navajo Indians as "code-talkers" -helped the U.S. communicate safely w/o the Japanese translating the messages
Battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa -allies started to bomb Japan to weaken their defenses -would have to establish bases on islands near Japan -Japanese forces would defend these islands fiercely
Battle of Leyte Gulf -October 1944 -largest naval battle -Island of Leyte invaded -wanted to isolate Japan from the countries it had occupied and deprive it of vital oil supplies -allied victory
Battle of Iwo Jima -Feb-March 1945 -26,000 U.S. troops killed or wounded in order to take Iwo Jima -victory marked by the raising of the U.S. flag atop Mt. Suribachi
Battle of Okinawa -April-June 1945 -Japanese defend island fiercely -last hurdle before U.S. would invade Japan -mass suicide by Japanese started to make the U.S. wonder if they would ever surrender
why did the U.S. consider using the atomic bomb? -U.S. feared an invasion of Japan would result in 200,000 American casualties and perhaps 1-2 million Japanese casualties -U.S. considers using an atomic bomb to end the war quickly
Manhattan Project a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons
D-Day -June 6, 1944 -allied troops crossed the English channel from Britain and landed on the beaches of Normandy in France
what were the series of events that led to V-E Day? -allies had taken Paris and moved eastward -begins liberation of Europe -April 28: Mussolini captured and hung -April 30: Hitler committed suicide -May 7: Germany surrendered unconditionally -May 8: officially V-E Day
General Dwight D. Eisenhower -supreme commander of allied forces -led the massive invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe that began on D-Day
who was present at the Yalta Conference? -FDR -Winston Churchill -Joseph Stalin
it was agreed that after the Soviet Union entered the war against Japan, it would receive... a sphere of influence in Manchuria following Japan's surrender
what was one agreement at the Yalta Conference that was also stated in the Treaty of Versailles? Germany should assume some responsibility for reparations following the war
who became the next president after FDR died? Harry S. Truman
what do some say about FDR and his role/decisions made at the Yalta Conference? they accuse him of "handing over" Eastern Europe and Northeast Asia to the Soviet Union
who was present at the Potsdam Conference? -Stalin -Churchill -Truman
what was the debate/disagreement about Germany? how much reparations Germany should pay
Germany was to be divided into how many zones, and occupied by whom? 4, the allies (U.S., Britain, France, USSR)
what land did Poland receive? a large part of German territory
what was stated in the "Potsdam Declaration?" U.S. threatened Japan with prompt and utter destruction if it did not immediately surrender
what did President Truman tell Stalin? that the U.S. had successfully detonated the first atomic bomb
when was Hiroshima bombed? August 6, 1945
how many people were killed? 200,000
what happened to the people, structures, etc. as a result of the bomb? 70,000 of 76,000 buildings were damaged/destroyed
when was Nagasaki bombed? August 9, 1945
how many people were killed? 80,000
why was it decided to drop a second bomb? to show that the U.S. had an endless supply of the new weapon for use against Japan, and they would continue until Japan surrendered
what city was supposed to be bombed? why that city? why was it not bombed? -Kokura -Japan had one of their largest munitions plants there -clouds+fires covered the city so the bomber wasn't able to get a clear target
when did Japan surrender? August 14
what was stated in the Atlantic Charter? 26 nations @ war with Axis Powers pledged to use their full resources against the Axis and agreeing to make a separate peace
the postwar international organization that was to be established would be based on the principle of... collective security/equality of all nations
what countries would serve on the Security Council? U.S., Britain, Soviet Union, China
what was set up (in terms of councils) under the Charter of the United Nations? -General Assembly -Security Council -Economic/Social Council -International Court of Justice -Trusteeship Council -Secretary General
the United Nations came into existence on... October 24, 1945
Created by: amandathornton



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