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F. tularensis

this species was discovered in ground squirrels in 1911. F. tularensis
gram stain appearance small, poorly staining, gram negative rods
cultivated by prolonged incubation on chocolate agar
pinpoint colonies on chocolate agar
oxidase negative
catalase weak or negative
Francisellaceae are found widely distributed in the environment
F. tularensis is found in what animals birds, reptiles, fish, invertebrates and mammals, including humans
caused by contact with infected animals or vectors
vectors ticks, mosquitos, deer flies
reservoirs lagomorphs, rodents, galliform birds and deer
number of ways humans can become infected 4
human infection handling carcasses or skin of infected animals
human infection ingesting contaminated water
human infection being bitten by carnivores who are contaminated
human infection being bitten by ticks
3 types of tick reservoirs found in the US dog, wood, lone star ticks
contact with infected animals or vectors causes the disease Tulerania disease
deer flies can also transmit Tulerania disease
F. tularensis bacteria type facultative intracellular
primarily infects, the host organism cell type macrophages
Entry into the macrophage occurs via phagocytosis
the bacterium is sequestered from the interior of the cell by a phagosome
F. tularensis then breaks out of this phagosome into the cytosol and rapidly proliferates
Eventually the infected cell undergoes apotosis
progeny bacteria are to initiate new rounds of infection
most common form of disease ulceroglandular
symptoms of ulceroglandular F. tularensis red papule forms an ulcer, glands swell
in the bloodstream ulceroglandular causes fever, chills, head and body aches
the 3 clinical manifestations are glandular, systemic and pneumonia
most serious form is , it is caused by pneumonia, inhalation of infected aerosols
systemic septicemia has a mortality rate of 30-60%
specimen types whole blood or serum
cultivation needs cysteine, sulfhydryl, no CO2, slow growing
plates must be taped because it is a danger to lab employees/ highly infectious
because it can be aerosoliized it is a potential bioweapon
Created by: nawchem



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