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TermDefinition 1Definition 2Definition 3
"On Civil Disobedience" Influential essay that advocated passive resistance as a form of justifiable protest. Essay that later inspire movement leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Essay written by Henry David Thoreau
49ers Group of rough young men who loved adventure and moving west following the discovery of gold in 1848.
Alien Acts Allowed the president to expel any foreigner determined to be a threat to the nation offenders could be jailed or deported during wartime, and the residency requirement for citizenship was extended from 5 years to 14 years. Led to the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions; contributed to the debate concerning constitutional rights in times of war.
American Party A.k.a. the Know-Nothing Party, part of the movement of the extreme nativists. Opposed immigration and the election of Roman Catholics to political office. Members met in secret and would not tell anyone what they stood for, instead saying, "I know nothing" when asked.
Andrew Jackson General that play the southern troops against the British in 1814. Emerged as American Hero after cutting through the British from Alabama to New Orleans and stop the British attempt to control the Mississippi River at the Battle of New Orleans.
Antietam Union Commander General McClellan, who had advanced knowledge of Confederate battle plans, cut Confederate General Lee off at this battle, which occurred in September 1862. Was the bloodiest day of the war, as more than 22,000 men were lost or wounded. The battle was the turning-point of the war, it kept the Confederates from getting much-needed assistance from Britain and France. In addition, President Lincoln now had the "victory" he had been waiting for. He promptly issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 23rd 1862.
Anti-Masons This new political party arose in 1832 to challenge the old two-party system.
Apologists This group, led by George Fitzhugh, spoke of the happy lives of southern slaves who were clothed, fed, and housed by benevolent slave owners.
Appomattox Court House It was at this location on April 9, 1865, that the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia officially surrendered.
Bank Of The United States This institution, supported by Alexander Hamilton, was where the national treasury would keep its deposits. It would keep the funds safe and available as loanable funds. This institution was very much opposed by Thomas Jefferson.
Battle Of New Orleans Battle in 1815 between American and British troops for control of New Orleans, ending in an American victory. Stopped the English's attempt to control the Mississippi River, impressive victory for Americans, but was completely unnecessary, fought 2 weeks after the peace treaty ending the war was signed.
Battle Of Tippecanoe U.S. forces - led by William Henry Harrison - defeated Tecumseh's confederacy then burned its headquarters at Prophetstown. Tecumseh's confederacy allied with the British during the War of 1812; Harrison emerged as a war hero.
Berlin Decree This decree by Napoleon in 1806 was an attempt to cut Britain off from the rest of the world and also meant that American ships traveling to Britain to deposit Goods would get caught in the Napoleonic War.
Bleeding Kansas Name given to the area where fighting broke out among the pro- and anti-slavery factions at the border.
Border Ruffians Name of the group of pro-slavery Farmers from nearby Missouri who settled small areas on the border in order to vote in the election that would determine the slavery issue for Kansas.
Brigham Young An American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the Western United States. He founded Salt Lake City, and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory, United States.
Bull Run First major battle of the American Civil War; Confederate victory. Proved that the war would be longer and more brutal than either side had imagined.
Burr Conspiracy Aaron Burr proposed to separate the western states from the Union and form a new republic under English protection, but England refused to listen to his plan. Wilkinson informed Jefferson of Burr's plans for treason and had Burr arrested 1805-1806
Central Government This government's power exceeds the power of the states. This idea is strongly supported by James Madison.
Charles G. Finney This Presbyterian minister used emotion rather than sense to appeal to his audience. His “fire and brimstone” sermons became commonplace in upstate New York, where listeners were instilled with the fear of Satan and an eternity of Hell. He insisted that sinners could save themselves by doing good and an immediate and loyal faith in God. A region of New York became known as the “burned-over district,” because this minister preached of the dangers of eternal damnation across the countryside.
Cherokee Nation V. Georgia Court decided that the Indian tribes could not sue in federal courts but that they were under the jurisdiction of the U.S. and could only give up their land voluntarily.
Compact Theory Belief is based on the idea that the federal government was formed because of a compact between states.
Compromise Of 1850 30 years after the Missouri Compromise California wished to enter the union as a free state, congressmen could not decide on whether to make Cali a free or slave state. Henry Clay proposed the compromise January 29, 1850. California entered the Union as a free state.
Confederate States of America Name adopted by the 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union and formed their own country during the Civil War
Convention of 1800 Goal was to negotiate a settlement before a full-scale war between U.S. and France. But resulted in ending the termination of Franco-American Alliance. Hamilton negotiated with France, we pay for damages inflicted on French vessels, and the avoidance of an all-out war with France.
Copperheads Northern Democrats who opposed to Lincoln's war policies and were concerned with the growth of presidential power. A.K.A. peace Democrats.
Corrupt Bargain Refers to the claim from the supporters of Andrew Jackson that John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay had worked out a deal to ensure that Adams was elected president by the House of Representatives in 1824.
Cult of Domesticity The ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
Declaration of Sentiments Declared that "all men and women are created equal" and demanded true universal suffrage to include females as well as men. Drafted at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
Democratic-Republicans Represented the interests of the common man, the farmer. Was anti-capitalistic. Favored limitations on the power of the federal government and a strict interpretation of the Constitution. Held that the future of the nation was dependent on maintaining an agrarian society. Favored support of France. Leaders included were: Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
Dorothea Dix Woman who traveled across America with the goal and persistence to better the conditions and treatments of mentally ill people. .
Dred Scott V. Stanford Chief Justice Taney ruled that the slave Dred Scott was not a citizen and no standing in court. Congress has no power to prohibit slavery in a territory. Effectively voided the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
Elastic Clause Stretches Congress' power to make laws that pertain to carrying out delegated powers.
Electoral College This representative body chooses the president rather than popular vote.
Eli Whitney Best known for inventing the cotton gin. Pioneered the use of interchangeable parts in the manufacture of muskets. Made cotton a profitable crop, strengthening the economic foundation of slavery.
Emancipation Proclamation September 22, 1862 - Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seceded, after the Northern victory at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.
Embargo Act Jefferson forbade any American ship to leave port for any foreign nation. Hoped that British trade would be hurt so they would stop violating the neutral rights of the U.S. The act backfired and resulted in a brief economic depression.
Era Of Good Feeling (1816-1824) Popular name for the period of one-party, Republican, rule during Monroe's presidency. The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery and the national bank.
Erie Canal An artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo; supported by New York Governor Dewitt Clinton Lowered shipping costs, fueling an economic boom in upstate New York and increasing the profitability of farming in the Old Northwest.
Essex Junto Aaron Burr joined this small group, which were radical Federalists that plotted the succession from the Union of the New England state.
Factions Term used to describe the party. It was the fear of leaders such as George Washington that these parties would prevent a strong, unified government.
Federalists People who were in favor of the Constitution and a strong central government. Usually merchants from the north that had close ties to British trade networks.
Force Bill This bill, which Andrew Jackson encouraged Congress the pass, gave the president the power to use military force to collect tariffs if the need arose.
Fredrick Douglass Runaway slave who became a leader of the abolitionist movement. Published The North Star which told of the terrible and ugliness of slavery. Argued that slavery should be abolished by way of legal means instead of the popular radical violent abolitionists.
Freedmen Slaves who escaped to the north and enlisted in the union army.
Free-Soil Party Short-lived political party made up of former anti-slavery members of the Whig Party and the Democratic Party. Opposed slavery in the new territories and sometimes worked to remove existing laws that discriminated against free blacks. Leaders included: Martin Van Buren
French Revolution Period of political and social upheaval in France in which the absolute monarchy that had ruled for centuries collapsed in three years. 1789-1799 during which the French government underwent structural changes, and adopted ideals based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Changes were accompanied by violent turmoil and executions.
Fugitive Slave Law A law enacted as part of the Compromise of 1850 designed to ensure that escaped slaves would be returned into bondage. Law designed to re-enslave those slaves who made it to freedom. In addition, the law denied legal rights to captured blacks and sentenced whites who harbored fugitives to heavy fines or jail time.
Gadsden Purchase Purchase of land from Mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-Mexico boundary. Signed by President Franklin Pierce and 1853. The terms were that the Mesilla Valley in the southernmost desert region of New Mexico and Arizona was transferred to the United States from Mexico.
Gettysburg Largest and bloodiest battle of the American Civil War; Union victory; considered - when coupled with General Ulysses S. Grant's victory in Vicksburg the next day - to be the turning point of the war. Lincoln used the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg National Cemetery to honor the fallen Union soldiers and redefine the purpose of the war in his historic Gettysburg Address.
Gibbons V. Ogden (1824 under John Marshall) Suit over whether New York could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
Great Compromise Compromise made at the Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house.
Greenbacks Currency was used in place of gold during wartime
Harper’s Ferry Armed slave revolt led by John Brown. White Abolitionist who seized this Virginia town's arsenal in 1859. Raid that was demolished by a detachment of U.S. Marines led by Robert E. Lee.
Harriet Beecher Stowe Wrote 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' (published in 1852) which told of the horrors of slavery and the terrible racism African Americans got from Northerners. Gave those who'd never been to the South a view into the terrible world of slavery.
Harriet Tubman This woman along with Sojourner Truth helped slaves escape to the north using the network called the Underground Railroad.
Henry David Thoreau Poet that wrote about nature and advocated for Transcendentalism and civil disobedience. Wrote "Walden" and "On Civil Disobedience".
House of Representatives This branch of government is comprised reflect the population of individual states.
Indian Removal Act Ordered the removal of Indian Tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri Those resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles.
Ironclads Term used to describe the naval ships that were first launched in 1862.
John Adams First vice president and later defeated Thomas Jefferson in the presidential election of 1800.
John C. Calhoun Political Theorists and vice president, wrote "The South Carolina Exposition" and advocated for a dual presidency.
Joseph Smith The creator of the Mormon religion (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints). He ran into much opposition and was murdered with his brothers in 1844 by a mob
Judiciary Act Of 1801 A law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists.
Kitchen Cabinet Nickname for the small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency.
Lecompton Constitution Proposed Kansas state constitution; protected the rights of slaveholders already in Kansas and provided referendum in which voters could vote for the "Constitution with Slavery" or the "Constitution with no Slavery". Supported by President Buchanan but rejected by the House of Representatives.
Macon’s Bill Number 2 Opened trade with Britain and France, said if either nation repealed its restrictions on neutral shipping the US would halt trade with the other, didn't work.
Maine Law The first legislative implements the emerged the temperance movement. It banned the sale and manufacturing of alcohol.
Midnight Judges Federal Judges appointed by Adams on his last night in office in order to maintain Federal power in government.
Milan Decree Ruled that neutral ships that complied with the British orders in council were subject to seizure when they reached continental ports.
Nat Turner’s Rebellion Virginia slave revolt that resulted in the deaths of sixty whites and raised fears among white Southerners of further uprisings. Led to new legislation making it unlawful to teach slaves, free blacks, or mulattoes to read or write.
Nathaniel Hawthorne This American Authors book, The Scarlet Letter, raise questions about religion and society.
Nativists This group was part of a movement against the influx of Irish and German immigrants. These Anglo-Americans believed that they were really the only true “Americans,” and railed against the rights of those who had foreign blood.
New York Draft Riots A series of violent disturbances that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War
Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 Modified the Embargo Act. Forbid trade only with Britain and France. Macon's Bill 1810 Opened trade with all nations once again. Provided that if either Britain or France would formally agree to respect the neutral rights of the U.S., the U.S. would embargo trade with that nation’s foe. Napoleon accepted this offer, but never upheld his end of the agreement.
Orders In Council Decrees issued by the British claiming the right to impress foreign vessels entering their harbors.
Oregon Trail Dangerous path, which was originally rarely used, but in the mid-1840s was used by thousands. British response to Napoleon's Berlin Decree.
Panic Of 1819 Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Panic Of 1837 Economic crisis triggered by bank failures, elevated grain prices and Jackson's efforts to curb over speculation on western lands. It disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the west.
Peculiar Institution Term for the institution of slavery in the south. Its use in the first half of the 19th century reflected a growing division between the north and the south.
Perfectionism Due to the new liberal movements and religious fervor, many Americans believed that perfection was attainable. Therefore, a series of movements took place to perfect society, such as prison reform, temperance, etc.
Popular Sovereignty A concept that said the people in the territory should decide whether or not slavery will be allowed there.
Ralph Waldo Emerson Transcendentalist essayist and philosopher from New England; icon of the Romantic Age; wanted people to embrace change and value individuality; wrote “Self-Reliance.”
Report on Public Manufacturers Document written by the Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton 1791 the industrialization of the United States and a protective tariffs to protect infant industry.
Republican Party Formed in 1854 by a coalition of Independent Democrats, Free Soilers, and Conscience Whigs united in opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Bill. Moderates like Abraham Lincoln opposed slavery on "moral" grounds, while admitting that slavery had a "right" to exist where the Constitution originally allowed it to exist. Stressed free labor and opposed the extension of slavery in the territories. John C. Fremont was the first Republican candidate in the election of 1856.
Revenue Act of 1789 This act placed tariff on imports, a rate much lower than Alexander Hamilton had desired.
Robert E. Lee Confederate Army military general. Defeated Burnside at the Battle of Fredericksburg. After the Battle of Gettysburg he eventually surrendered.
Sarah And Angelina Grimke Quaker sisters from South Carolina who came north and became active in the abolitionist movement. Angelina married Theodore Weld, a leading abolitionist and Sarah wrote and lectured on a variety of reforms including women's rights and abolition.
Scorched Earth The policy of burning and destroying all the property in a given area so as to deny it to an enemy.
Second Battle Of Bull Run Conflict between Lee and General John Pope in August 1862, ending in a decisive victory by Lee that led to increased confidence and an attempt to convince Maryland to secede
Senate According to Roger Sherman, in this branch of government "each State should have one vote and no more."
Sojourner Truth Besides Harriet Tubman, this woman helped slaves escape to the North on the Underground Railroad.
Spoils System A practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory and as an incentive to keep working for the party.
Strict Constructionist A person who believes the government has only the powers specifically named in the Constitution.
Tallmadge Amendment Sought to forbid the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and mandated that all children of slave parents born in the state after its admission should be free at the age of 25. Failed to pass through the Senate.
Tariff of 1832 Reduced tariffs to remedy the conflict created by the Tariff of 1828.
Tecumseh and the Prophet These Shawnee brothers organizer a large confederacy to prevent the American advance westward.
The Adams-Onis Treaty This treaty provided for the United States purchase of Florida from Spain 1819. It also gained Spanish assurances to abandon its claims in The Oregon Territory.
The American System Henry Clay's plan for economic growth. Planned to establish a protective tariff, national bank, and improve the country's transportation system.
The Constitutional Union Party Also known as the "do-nothings" or "Old Gentlemen's" party; 1860 election; It was a middle of the road group that feared for the Union- consisted mostly of Whigs and Know-Nothings. met in Baltimore and nominated John Bell from Tennessee as candidate for presidency-the slogan for this candidate was "The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the laws."
The Federalist Papers Series of pamphlets (85 essays) that support the ratification of the Constitution, written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison.
The Hartford Convention Meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new Constitution. Resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse.
The Homestead Act Of 1862 Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act Law that was passed in 1854, which established the Kansas and Nebraska territories with the slavery question determined by popular sovereignty. Led to the Bleeding Kansas conflict.
The Missouri Compromise Maine is admitted as a free state, Missouri as a slave state, and no slavery is allowed north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory.
The Monroe Doctrine Statement delivered by President James Monroe stating that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention. Changed very little throughout the years ("Big Brother" Policy - 1880s, "Roosevelt Corollary" - 1904, and Clark Memorandum - 1928).
The Morrill Land Grant of 1862 This act gave federal lands to states for the purpose of building schools that would teach agriculture and technical trades.
The North Star Antislavery journal, published by Fredrick Douglass, wrote about the ugliness of slavery for readers, and argued that slavery went against the Constitution.
The Pacific Railway Act Of 1862 Authorized land subsidies and money subsidies for the construction of a transcontinental railroad.
The Rush-Bagot Treaty Provided for a large demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained. Stipulated that the United States and British North America could each maintain one military vessel as well as one cannon on Lake Ontario and Lake Champlain.
The Star-Spangled Banner Written by Francis Scott Key. Inspired by the Battle of Baltimore.
Three-Fifths Compromise Slaves in the southern states would be counted as 3/5 of a person in population
Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too! Slogan used in the campaign of William Henry Harrison, a war hero, and John Tyler. The pair won, easily defeating Martin Van Buren in the 1840 election.
Trail of Tears The forced relocation of the Cherokee tribe to the Western United States; resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees.
Treaty of Ghent December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quota. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Treaty Of Guadalupe Hidalgo Ended the Mexican-American War. Mexico now recognized the American claims to the area north of the Rio Grande. Mexico seceded California and New Mexico to the US in return for $15 million. The U.S. agreed to assume approximately $3 million in debts Mexico owed to American citizens.
Underground Railroad System of networks that was monumental in helping slaves travel to the north to escape slavery.
Virginia Plan Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states. Proposed on May 29, 1787 by Edmund Randolph.
Walden This book written focused on the self-initiated experiment where he excused himself from society by living in seclusion in the woods for 2 years. Book written Henry David Thoreau
Whigs Opposed Andrew Jackson. Supported the Bank of U.S. (national bank), high tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, political action for social reform divided on terms of slavery to conscience and cotton Whigs, and Henry Clay.
Whiskey Rebellion Protest caused by a tax on liquor. Protest that tested the will of the government and Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy.
Wilmot Proviso Bill that said that slavery was not allowed in the newly acquired territory from the War with Mexico, was proposed and passed in the House of Representatives but was rejected by the Senate.
Worcester V. Georgia Held that Native Americans were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty. Ignored by the Jackson administration.
Writ of Habeas Corpus A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.
Xyz Affair Incident that precipitated an undeclared war with France when three French officials demanded that American emissaries pay a bribe before negotiating disputes between the two countries. Led to the Quasi-War with France; convinced John Adams to strengthen the U.S. navy.
American Temperance Society This organization, created by revival preachers in the mid-1820s, strove to encourage drinkers to limit their intake of alcohol and then eventually take a vow of abstinence.
Anaconda Plan Opposed a central government that did not guarantee protection of individual rights.
Anti-Federalists This was the name given to those in opposition to the Constitution and in favor of the strong states' rights. They usually hailed from small southern farms or western homesteads. Support came mainly from the backcountry and agricultural areas and debtors. Leaders included: Patrick Henry, John Hancock, and George Mason
American Antislavery Society An abolitionist society founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Garrison seemed to offend many of the moderates within the movement by claiming the Constitution was a proslavery document. As a result, split into the Liberty Party Did not accept female participation but the Liberty Party did.
Bear Flag Republic this is the name that California called itself after it had been declared independent following the near-end of the Mexican War in September of 1847. John C. Fremont was it's leader.
Bill of Rights This document, which was designed to protect individual freedoms and state sovereignty, was added to the Constitution to appease Anti-Federalist states that were in opposition to the Constitution and in favor of strong states' rights.
Specie Circular An executive order issued by Andrew Jackson requiring payment for government land to be in gold and silver. An executive order issued by Andrew Jackson requiring payment for government land to be in gold and silver.
Seneca Falls This location in New York was the site of a meeting with feminist leadership, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony. Here, the Declaration of Sentiments was drafted.
Sedition Act Made it illegal to defame or criticize the president or the government. Aimed at war newspapers critical of the Federalist policies. Jeffersonians viewed it as proof that individual liberties were threatened if the central government was too strong. Led to the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Contributed to the debate concerning constitutional rights in times of war.
Separation of Powers The powers of the government are divided between three branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judiciary.
Sam Houston United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 Issued by George Washington, established isolationist policy, proclaimed government's official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned American citizens about intervening on either side of conflict
Farewell Address George Washington warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency.
Freeport Doctrine Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
Jay's Treaty A negotiated treaty with the British that attempted to settle conflict at sea and curtail English involvement in Indian attacks. Britain agreed to evacuate posts on the U.S. western frontier, but nothing firm was determined about British seizures of U.S. merchant ships. An unpopular treaty Passed in 1794
Pinckney Treaty The Spanish opened the Mississippi River to American traffic, including the right of deposit at the port city of New Orleans. "Florida's northern boundary at 31° was established. Passed in 1795"
James Madison Fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787). He strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
Tripolitan War A war (1801-05) that Tripoli declared on the United States because of American refusal to pay tribute for the safe passage of shipping in Barbary Coastal waters.
Twelfth Amendment Separated out Electoral College vote for vice president to avoid a repeat of the election of 1800 deadlock.
Thirteenth Amendment Civil War Amendment, abolished slavery, 1865
Tariff of 1816 First protective tariff in U.S. History. Created to prevent cheap British goods from flooding the market and injuring American manufacturing. Passage of the tax did not go over well with all sectors of the United States.
Tariff of 1828 Referred to as the “Tariff of Abominations” by John C. Calhoun. New Englanders pushed for this tax to protect themselves from foreign competitors.
New Jersey Plans Called for a unicameral legislature in which each State would be equally represented. Purposed by William Patterson
Lewis and Clark Led the first transcontinental expedition to the Pacific Coast by the United States. To study the area's plants, animal life, and geography, and to discover how the region could be exploited economically.
Judiciary Act Of 1789 In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Transcendentalists A nineteenth-century movement in the Romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience.
Homestead Act of 1862 Encouraged westward expansion by allowing a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of about $30.
Knickerbockers Group in New York that wrote literature and enabled America to boast for the first time of a literature that matched its magnificent landscapes A writer's club founded by Washington Irving, James Fennimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant
The Oneida Commune A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
Maine Law Passed in 1851 in Maine, was one of the first statutory implementations of the developing temperance movement in the United States.
The Shakers A group of Protestant Quakers led by Ann Lee who rejected all aspects of sexuality, leading to their inevitable extinction
The Southern Carolina Exposition Pamphlet produced by South Carolinians and written by John Calhoun, denounced the tariff as unjust and unconstitutional.
Report on Public Credit Proposed by Hamilton to repair war debts; selling of securities and federal lands, assumption of state debts, set up the first National Bank
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints Formed by Joseph Smith in 1830 and led to Utah by Brigham Young after Joseph Smiths death.
Horace Mann The secretary of the Massachusetts board of education, created a model public school system in Massachusetts.
John Marshall A public official of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Marshall served as chief justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835. His interpretations of the Constitution in cases such as Marbury versus Madison served to strengthen the power of the Court and the power of the federal government generally.
Napoleonic War War between napoleon's France and the other European powers, led by Britain. Both sides tried to prevent neutral powers, esp. the US, from trading with their enemy. American ships were seized by both sides and American sailors were "impressed" or forced into the British navy. The US was angered by this violation of the "freedom of the seas" principle which holds that outside its territorial waters, a state may not claim sovereignty over the seas. These violations would escalate and lead to the War of 1812.
Ulysses S. Grant Became the first president after the Civil War. Previously a Union General who defeated General Lee at Appomattox Court House. Which ended the Civil War. During presidency several scams passed through Congress. The Panic of 1873 (over speculation) came about in his reign.
Liberty Party America's first antislavery political party, formed in 1840. When the party ran a presidential candidate in the 1844 election It split the Republican vote and inadvertently tipped the 1844 election in favor of Democrat James Polk.
Created by: Blondie1129