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History Facts 1-65

7th Grade History Facts

TermDefinition
The First Amendment states that “Congress shall make no law” restricting freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition.
The Second Amendment guarantees the right of states to organize militias, or armies, and the right of individuals to bear arms.
The Third Amendment forbids the government to order private citizens to allow soldiers to live in their homes.
The Fourth Amendment requires that warrants be issued if property is to be searched or seized (taken) by the government.
The Fifth Amendment protects an accused person from having to testify against him or herself (self-incrimination); bans double jeopardy, and guarantees that no person will suffer the loss of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
The Sixth Amendment guarantees the right to a speedy public trial by an impartial jury; the right to a lawyer; the right to cross examine witnesses; and the right to force witnesses at a trial to testify.
The Seventh Amendment guarantees the right to a jury trial in civil suits.
The Eighth Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment and excessive bail or fines.
The Ninth Amendment states that the people have rights other than those specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
The Tenth Amendment states that powers not given to the federal government belong to the states.
The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery.
The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees citizenship and rights to all people born or naturalized in the United States.
The Fifteenth Amendment guarantees the right to vote to all citizens regardless of race.
The Great Compromise Created two houses of Congress. One based on population, the other gave equal representation to each state.
The Magna Carta signed in 1215 by King John, was the first document that limited power of the ruler.
The English Bill of Rights protected the rights of English citizens and became the basis for the American Bill of Rights.
signed on July 4, 1776 The Declaration of Independence
written in 1787 The Constitution of the United States
Louisiana Territory President Thomas Jefferson purchased it from France in 1803.
Primary Sources the original records of an event. They include eyewitness reports, records created at the time of an event, speeches, and letters by people involved in the event, photographs and artifacts.
Secondary Sources the later writings and interpretations of historians and writers. Often secondary sources, like textbooks and articles, provide summaries of information found in primary sources.
Civil Disobedience the refusal to obey a government law or laws as a means of passive resistance because of one’s moral conviction or belief.
Mercantilism an economic theory that a country’s strength is measured by the amount of gold it has, that a country should sell more than it buys and that the colonies exist for the benefit of the Mother Country.
Representative Government a system of government in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them.
Declaration of Independence a document written by Thomas Jefferson, declaring the colonies independence from England.
Republic is a nation in which voters choose representatives to govern them.
Three Branches of Government the Legislative Branch, the Judicial Branch, and the Executive branch.
Checks and Balances system set up by the Constitution in which each branch of the federal government has the power to check, or control, the actions of the other branches.
Federalism the sharing of power between the states and the national government
Amend to change.
A Democracy a form of government that is run for and by the people, giving people the supreme power.
Ratify to approve by vote.
Judicial Review the right of the Supreme Court to judge laws passed by Congress and determine whether they are constitutional or not.
The Articles of Confederation The first American constitution. It was a very weak document that limited the power of the Congress by giving states the final authority over all decisions.
The Constitution of the United States sets out the laws and principles of the government of the United States.
Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the Constitution and detail the protection of individual liberties.
James Madison is considered to be the “Father of the Constitution”.
Bicameral is consisting of two houses, or chambers, especially in a legislature.
Suffrage is the right to vote.
Unalienable rights are rights that cannot be given up, taken away or transferred. Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness are some of those rights.
Popular Sovereignty is the practice of allowing each territory to decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery.
Tyranny is a cruel and unjust government.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence; became the 3rd President of the United States and purchased the Louisiana territory, doubling the size of the United States.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican War. The US gained Mexican Cession.
1845 Texas was annexed by the United States. This was one of the causes of war with Mexico.
Manifest Destiny is the belief that the United States should own all of the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Fort Sumter, in South Carolina The first shots of the Civil War were fired
1861-1865 The Civil War was fought
States’ Rights is the theory that states had rights that the federal government could not violate and that states could nullify federal laws.
Abolitionist was a person who wanted to end slavery in the United States.
Tariff is a tax on goods brought into a country.
protective tariff is a tax placed on goods from another country to protect the home industry.
Sectionalism is a strong sense of loyalty to a state or section instead of to the whole country.
Jefferson Davis was the President of the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Ulysses S. Grant was the General of the Union Army and was responsible for winning the Civil War for the North.
Robert E. Lee was the General of the Confederate Army
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States who successfully put the Union back together only to be assassinated 5 days after the Civil War ended.
Harriet Tubman was an escaped slave who became a Conductor on the Underground Railroad and helped over 300 slaves to freedom in the North.
Dred Scott v. Sanford was the Supreme Court decision that said slaves were property and not citizens.
The Cotton Gin was an invention by Eli Whitney that speeded the cleaning of cotton fibers and in effect, increased the need for slaves.
Harriet Beecher Stowe helped fuel the abolitionist movement in 1852 by writing Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The book shined a light on the horrors of slavery.
The Battle of Gettysburg was the turning point in the Civil War for the North. Confederate troops were forced to retreat and never invade the North again.
Gettysburg Address was a short speech given by Abraham Lincoln to dedicate a cemetery for soldiers who died at the Battle of Gettysburg. It is considered to be a profound statement of American ideals.
Vicksburg, Mississippi The capture by the North in 1863 effectively split the Confederacy in two and gave control of the Mississippi River to the Union.
Appomattox Court House is the small town in Virginia where Lee surrendered the Confederate Army to Grant ending the Civil War.
Created by: diazcarlem