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History Facts 1-65
7th Grade History Facts
|The First Amendment
|states that “Congress shall make no law” restricting freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition.
|The Second Amendment
|guarantees the right of states to organize militias, or armies, and the right of individuals to bear arms.
|The Third Amendment
|forbids the government to order private citizens to allow soldiers to live in their homes.
|The Fourth Amendment
|requires that warrants be issued if property is to be searched or seized (taken) by the government.
|The Fifth Amendment
|protects an accused person from having to testify against him or herself (self-incrimination); bans double jeopardy, and guarantees that no person will suffer the loss of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
|The Sixth Amendment
|guarantees the right to a speedy public trial by an impartial jury; the right to a lawyer; the right to cross examine witnesses; and the right to force witnesses at a trial to testify.
|The Seventh Amendment
|guarantees the right to a jury trial in civil suits.
|The Eighth Amendment
|prohibits cruel and unusual punishment and excessive bail or fines.
|The Ninth Amendment
|states that the people have rights other than those specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
|The Tenth Amendment
|states that powers not given to the federal government belong to the states.
|The Thirteenth Amendment
|The Fourteenth Amendment
|guarantees citizenship and rights to all people born or naturalized in the United States.
|The Fifteenth Amendment
|guarantees the right to vote to all citizens regardless of race.
|The Great Compromise
|Created two houses of Congress. One based on population, the other gave equal representation to each state.
|The Magna Carta
|signed in 1215 by King John, was the first document that limited power of the ruler.
|The English Bill of Rights
|protected the rights of English citizens and became the basis for the American Bill of Rights.
|signed on July 4, 1776
|The Declaration of Independence
|written in 1787
|The Constitution of the United States
|President Thomas Jefferson purchased it from France in 1803.
|the original records of an event. They include eyewitness reports, records created at the time of an event, speeches, and letters by people involved in the event, photographs and artifacts.
|the later writings and interpretations of historians and writers. Often secondary sources, like textbooks and articles, provide summaries of information found in primary sources.
|the refusal to obey a government law or laws as a means of passive resistance because of one’s moral conviction or belief.
|an economic theory that a country’s strength is measured by the amount of gold it has, that a country should sell more than it buys and that the colonies exist for the benefit of the Mother Country.
|a system of government in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them.
|Declaration of Independence
|a document written by Thomas Jefferson, declaring the colonies independence from England.
|is a nation in which voters choose representatives to govern them.
|Three Branches of Government
|the Legislative Branch, the Judicial Branch, and the Executive branch.
|Checks and Balances
|system set up by the Constitution in which each branch of the federal government has the power to check, or control, the actions of the other branches.
|the sharing of power between the states and the national government
|a form of government that is run for and by the people, giving people the supreme power.
|to approve by vote.
|the right of the Supreme Court to judge laws passed by Congress and determine whether they are constitutional or not.
|The Articles of Confederation
|The first American constitution. It was a very weak document that limited the power of the Congress by giving states the final authority over all decisions.
|The Constitution of the United States
|sets out the laws and principles of the government of the United States.
|Bill of Rights
|is the first ten amendments to the Constitution and detail the protection of individual liberties.
|is considered to be the “Father of the Constitution”.
|is consisting of two houses, or chambers, especially in a legislature.
|is the right to vote.
|are rights that cannot be given up, taken away or transferred. Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness are some of those rights.
|is the practice of allowing each territory to decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery.
|is a cruel and unjust government.
|wrote the Declaration of Independence; became the 3rd President of the United States and purchased the Louisiana territory, doubling the size of the United States.
|Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
|ended the Mexican War. The US gained Mexican Cession.
|Texas was annexed by the United States. This was one of the causes of war with Mexico.
|is the belief that the United States should own all of the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
|Fort Sumter, in South Carolina
|The first shots of the Civil War were fired
|The Civil War was fought
|is the theory that states had rights that the federal government could not violate and that states could nullify federal laws.
|was a person who wanted to end slavery in the United States.
|is a tax on goods brought into a country.
|is a tax placed on goods from another country to protect the home industry.
|is a strong sense of loyalty to a state or section instead of to the whole country.
|was the President of the Confederacy during the Civil War.
|Ulysses S. Grant
|was the General of the Union Army and was responsible for winning the Civil War for the North.
|Robert E. Lee
|was the General of the Confederate Army
|was the 16th President of the United States who successfully put the Union back together only to be assassinated 5 days after the Civil War ended.
|was an escaped slave who became a Conductor on the Underground Railroad and helped over 300 slaves to freedom in the North.
|Dred Scott v. Sanford
|was the Supreme Court decision that said slaves were property and not citizens.
|The Cotton Gin
|was an invention by Eli Whitney that speeded the cleaning of cotton fibers and in effect, increased the need for slaves.
|Harriet Beecher Stowe
|helped fuel the abolitionist movement in 1852 by writing Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The book shined a light on the horrors of slavery.
|The Battle of Gettysburg
|was the turning point in the Civil War for the North. Confederate troops were forced to retreat and never invade the North again.
|was a short speech given by Abraham Lincoln to dedicate a cemetery for soldiers who died at the Battle of Gettysburg. It is considered to be a profound statement of American ideals.
|The capture by the North in 1863 effectively split the Confederacy in two and gave control of the Mississippi River to the Union.
|Appomattox Court House
|is the small town in Virginia where Lee surrendered the Confederate Army to Grant ending the Civil War.