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history final

us history

TermDefinition
Berlin Airlift 1948-1949 Soviets suddenly blocked the traffic into west Berlin cutting off the city’s sources of food and fuel. American and British pilots flew around the clock to bring in resource. Soviet lifted blockade in 1949.
Berlin Airlift The Berlin Airlift demonstrated how deeply committed the United States was to opposing the expansion of communism and Soviet power. This commitment became the central theme of U.S. foreign policy throughout the Cold War.
Marshall Plan 1947-1951 Named after U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshal. Marshall Plan was to help the nations of Western Europe recover World War II. The United States government spent over 13 billion to buy food and farm equipment and to rebuild factories and homes.
Marshall Plan helped Western European economies recover from the devastation of World War II. Strengthened political and economic ties between the United States and Western Europe.
Korean War 1950-1953 The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. A UN force, made up mostly of U.S. troops, entered to block North Korean invasion. Chinese fought with the North Koreans. After major back & forth, ended 1953 with North & South Korea divided
Korean War The Korean War, first “shooting war” in Cold War between Communists and U.S. forces. The U.S. defended South Korea to protect nations from Communist attack. U.S. troops are still stationed in South Korea, more than fifty years after the fighting ended.
Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Decision 1954 The “Brown” was a 3rd grader Linda Brown, who was forced to travel a long distance to a segregated school in Topeka. NAACP sued saying she be allowed in white school that was closer. The Court said that separate schools were not equal & constitutional.
Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Decision segregation in public schools was a violation of the Constitution’s guarantee of equal protection of the law, the Court reversed Plessy v. Ferguson, which had established the constitutionality of segregated facilities. victory
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-1956 1955 Rosa Parks, an African American, was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama. Blacks, led by Martin Luther organized the Boycott to protest the arrest & segregation city buses. the Supreme Court ruled the segregation policy unconstitutional.
Montgomery Bus Boycott Beyond achieving local goals in Montgomery, the bus boycott made a national impact by inspiring similar boycotts in other southern cities. Martin Luther King Jr. gained nationwide attention and became a powerful leader of the growing civil rights movement
Formation of NASA 1958 In 1957 the Soviet shocked the U.S. by launching Sputnik, the first-ever artificial satellite. The U.S. responded in 1958 with the creation of the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), a Gov. agency dedicated to the exploration of space.
Formation of NASA NASA led the U.S. past the Soviet in the space race, moving from single satellites to manned flights orbiting the Earth to the Apollo program. NASA exhibited the success of American technology and boosted American pride & confidence during the Cold War.
Television changes American life 1950s Television ownership exploded in the 1950s, by the end 40 million American homes had 1 television set. Watching television became a favorite national pastime, as families across the country tuned in to the same comedies, game shows, and music programs.
Television changes American life provided Americans with common cultural experiences. By 1960 TV had become the major means of advertising in the country. Politicians quickly learned that TV had an enormous power to impact their relationship with voters.
Vietnam War 1954–1973 the U.S. tried to prevent Communist forces from taking over Vietnam. U.S. troops supported South against Communist North Vietnam. U.S. troops 500,000 didn't think it would happen. Gov. began withdrawing troops. North Vietnam took over all of Vietnam.
Vietnam War 58,000 U.S. died in Vietnam, more than 2 mil Vietnamese killed. The war caused divisions in U.S. society, some protested the war, others liked the Gov. Misleadings by military & Gov. leaders about progress of the war caused U.S. to lose faith in Gov.
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis Cuban by U.S., invaded Cuba and kill dictator(failed) U.S. found Soviet making missiles in Cuba. They'd be able to strike all U.S. JFK said that they be removed & setup U.S. warships to a naval blockade. they dismantle the missiles if U.S. didnt invade
Cuban Missile Crisis Cuban missile crisis was the closest to nuclear war. Kennedy & Khrushchev ease Cold War tensions. set up a hot line that allowed American & Soviet leaders to communicate directly during crisis, & signed something, banning the testing of nuclear weapons.
1963 March on Washington aftermath of police violence against civil rights protests, about 250,000 people about 1/4 of them white, took part for Jobs and Freedom. The march brought together major civil rights organizations to demand various civil rights laws.
March on Washington protest & celebration, demonstration the largest ever in Washington & the first on television. It is remembered for the peacefulness of the event and for the “I Have a Dream” speech by Martin Luther King Jr.
1965 Passage of Medicare & Medicaid Medicaid and Medicare were parts of Lyndon B. Johnson’s ambitious program of domestic reform known as the Great Society. Medicaid is a gov program that provides free/low-cost health care for poor. Medicare is a gov funded health care program for 65.
Passage of Medicare & Medicaid Medicare and Medicaid have helped provide health services for millions of Americans. Like New Deal programs of the 1930s, Johnson’s Great Society programs expanded the role of the federal government in American society
1965–1970 United Farm Workers Grape Boycott farmers in California striked when their employer cut their pay during grape harvest. César Chávez and Dolores Huerta, cofounders of NFWA, lead a nationwide grape boycott to support striking farm workers. Millions of Americans refused to buy grapes.
United Farm Workers Grape Boycott The success of the grape boycott brought César Chávez to national prominence as a leader in the fight for civil rights for Hispanic Americans.
1966 Formation of National Organization for Women (NOW) The NOW is a women’s rights organization founded by women’s rights leaders in 1966. NOW actively campaigned for passage of the Equal Rights Amendment. Though the ERA eventually failed, NOW helped women make important gains in the 1970s.
Formation of National Organization for Women (NOW) continues to be an influential voice in American politics. NOW’s goals include fighting discrimination in the workplace, schools, and the justice system. It also works to end violence against women and to protect women’s reproductive rights.
1969 Apollo 11 Moon Landing NASA’s Apollo program was to land American astronauts on moon. The Apollo 11 mission did this. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to walk on the moon. Millions of amazed viewers around the world watched the moon landing on television.
Apollo 11 Moon Landing The Apollo 11 mission fulfilled a bold promise made by Kennedy at the start of the 1960s to place a man on the moon in that decade. It was a triumph for American technology and was a source of wonder and pride to Americans
1970 Creation of the Environmental Protection Agency In 1970 Congress established the (EPA) to research, monitor, and set and enforce standards on air and water quality and noise and radiation pollution. The EPA administers the “Superfund” toxic waste cleanup act, established in 1980.
Creation of the Environmental Protection Agency creation of the EPA was one of Richard M. Nixon’s presidential legacies. The agency has overseen the restoration of polluted waterways, the creation of antipollution standards for industries, and the cleanup of toxic waste sites throughout the country.
1972 Nixon Goes to China As part of his “realpolitik” approach to foreign policy, Nixon made a historic visit to communist China in 1972. Nixon hoped that improved U.S.-China relations would spur the Soviets also to seek better relations with the U.S..
Nixon Goes to China huge success for Nixon. Not only did U.S.-China relations improve, but the trip also had the hoped-for effect on Soviets: shortly after the China visit, Nixon & Soviet leaders reached a nuclear arms agreement. time of easing Cold War tensions.
1965 Immigration Act of 1965 repealed the national origin immigration quotas and set hemispherebased quotas. Priority given to those with relatives already in the US & possessing job skills. The effect was to open up immigration to people from countries previously denied entry to US
Immigration Act of 1965 The act triggered a new wave of immigration to the United States that continues today. Asian and Latin American nations replaced European nations as the main sources of immigrants, altering the cultural mix in the United States.
1979 Iran Hostage Crisis student-led Islamic revolutionary group opposed to American support of proWestern Iranian gov seized the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. held 52 Americans hostage 444 days. Carter imposed a lot and failed. hostages released on the day of Reagan’s inauguration
Iran Hostage Crisis The crisis, and the poorly executed military rescue attempt, traumatized the country and strongly contributed to Carter’s election defeat in 1980. It marked a sharp decline in relations between the United States and the Muslim world.
1982 Strategic Arms Reduction Talks decade of work to limit increases in the superpowers’ nuclear forces, Reagan & Soviet leader Gorbachev began negotiations aimed at reducing the atomic weapons. resulted in the (START), signed by Gorbachev & George H. W. Bush i
Strategic Arms Reduction Talks START took place during the collapse of the Soviet empire a& the end of Cold War. START II, signed by Bush and Russian President Yeltsin was never ratified by the U.S, but the two countries have far exceeded the nuclear reduction goals of START I and II.
1991 Collapse of the Soviet Union economic & political reforms by Soviet leader Gorbachev led to calls for greater freedom in the Soviet & Eastern Europe. communist govs in Eastern Europe began collapsing. Soviet gov itself collapsed as former Soviet republics declared independence.
Collapse of the Soviet Union The fall of the Soviet Union marked the end of the Cold War. Millions of people in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union gained freedom from communist dictatorships. The US was left as the world’s superpower.
1991 Operation Desert Storm Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein invaded and conquered the neighboring oil-rich nation of Kuwait. George H.W. Bush built international coalition of allies to oppose the Iraqi action. A U.S led coalition drove Hussein’s out of Kuwait.
Operation Desert Storm The U.S led forces succeeded in freeing Kuwait from Iraqi demonstrating the effectiveness of international cooperation. Saddam Hussein, however, remained in power in Iraq. Just over 12 years later, the United States would be at war with Hussein again.
1993 Passage of NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) eliminated trade barriers between the US, Mexico, & Canada. allowed products to be sold across borders without tariffs. critics arguing would cost American jobs, & supporters increase trade.
Passage of NAFTA The debate over NAFTA was part of a larger debate about international trade and globalization. This will continue to be a major issue for Americans as the world’s economies become more interconnected.
2001 Terrorist Attacks of 9/11 terrorists, four planes, crashing two of them intoWorld Trade Center & a third into the Pentagon. A 4th plane Pennsylvania after passengerstried to take back the plane. target was either Capitol/White House. 3,000 killed. deadlier than Pearl Harbor
Terrorist Attacks of 9/11 Bush declared a war. US officials identified hijackers members of al Qaeda, Islamic terrorist group led bin Laden & Afghanistan. US invaded Afghanistan, driving out the Taliban gov supported bin Laden.
2003 Iraq War Bush focused on Iraqi leader building WMD. used against the US/to terrorist. UN weapons inspections no use of WMD. Saddam, didnt cooperate.Bush insisted the Iraqi threat. support of allies, we invaded & conquered. Saddam was captured
Iraq War American official gave control over to Iraqi govt. Iraqis electing their leaders. violence continued, as insurgents thought to include Saddam loyalists & Islamic extremists carried deadly attacks America & Iraqis. American & international teams no WMD
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Lyndon Johnson, secured passage of a landmark civil rights bill first proposed by Kennedy. it banned segregation in public places & discrimination in employment. another provision allowed the gov to hold funds from schools that violated integration.
Civil Rights Act called the most significant civil right law. it and the Voting Right Act of 1965, were major victories for the civil rights movement. These new laws gave the federal government the power to prevent racial discrimination.
Created by: SEAbubble4