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Social Studies

How did the Sui Dynasty form? The family reunited China after a period of chaos due to nomadic invasions.
True or False: The Sui Dynasty lasted many years before following the dynastic cycle and being overtaken by the Tang. False, the Sui Dynasty was short-lived because their emperor was assassinated.
How did the Tang Dynasty gain back power that had been lost to nomadic invaders? They expanded, established a strong military, forced the nomads to become inferior, and rebuilt the Great Wall of China.
How did the education system and government of the Tang Dynasty differ from that of the Han? The Tang strengthened Confucianism, the scholar-gentry, the civil service exam, and the bureaucracy.
How did China's tributary relationships affect how they viewed themselves? China referred to themselves as the "middle kingdom" and viewed themselves as superior.
How did the Tang take power away from the aristocrats? By restricting the land they could receive through inheritance. (Equal field system)
True or False: During the Tang Dynasty, it was possible for a peasant to take the Civil Service Exam. True.
How did urbanization occur during the Tang Dynasty? Since they revived the Silk Road, Chang'an became largely populated.
How did China's grand canal benefit them? It was a technological achievement, integrated northern and southern China, helped with trade, and helped China remain in control over their conquered areas.
How did Buddhism become popular in China? Cultural diffusion from India, Xuanzang, temples had important functions, didn't have to pay taxes.
Why did Buddhism fall in China and what long term effect did this have? Confucianism and Daoism felt threatened by Buddhism, convinced the emperor to burn down the temples since they didn't pay taxes, Confucianism became the major religion of China, Buddhism never spread widely, Han Wu was a major influence of the Confucians.
How did the Tang fall? Neglectful emperors, rebellions, war, nomadic invasions (Uighurs), overly powerful military commanders.
What happened to the Chinese government once the Tang fell? It divided itself into three parts, the Liao Empire, the Xi Xia Empire, and the Song. Although the Song unified China, they still paid tribute and was threatened by the others.
Why and how did the Song weaken their military and strengthen the scholar gentry? Since the Tang fell due to overly powerful military generals, the Song had to regulate their power. They only gave political power to the scholar gentry and constantly switched the locations of the commanders.
Why were the Song weak? Increased taxes cause the peasants to rebel, and they could not control the peasants due to their weak and inexperienced military.
Important inventions of the Tang and Song. Increased coal and iron production, better weapons, gunpowder, printing press, paper money, large ships, magnetic compass.
What were China's major trading cities like? There were commercial centers for stores and guilds, such as Kaifeng and Hangzhou.
How did the population of China increase during the Song Dynasty? Agriculture increased due to new farming tools, such as advances in irrigation, fertilizers, and new types of rice.
How does Neo-Confucianism compare to Buddhism and Confucianism? It combined Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism, believed in the li and qi, emphasized the important of nature, however rejected Buddhism's retreat from society and supported Confucianism's value of education.
How did the status of women change when Buddhism lost power and Confucianism gained it? Women lost power, as Confucians thought that giving them an education risked raising a family. Women could not inherit money, divorce, or take the Civil Service Exam.
How does foot binding show women's inferior position to men? Young girls had to tightly wrap their feet in order to obtain the desirable food size. Their inability to walk correctly also forced men to take care of them.
How did Japan and Korea's relationships with China affect their relationships with other countries? They were relatively isolated besides trading with China.
How did the Chinese form a relationship with Korea? The Chinese conquered Korea, but then Korea gained their land back. They formed a tributary relationship where China was technically the superior being, but both benefited from the relationship. The most important part was Korea got to trade with China.
What philosophies did Korea gain from China? Confucianism and Buddhism.
What were some differences between Korea and China? Korea had no Civil Service Exam, favored Buddhism over Confucianism, had an aristocracy.
Inventions of Korea. Celadon, woodblock prints, movable type writer.
How did Vietnam gain a relationship with China? They were conquered by China and later countered back.
What were the differences between Vietnam and China? Vietnam had a different language, valued village autonomy and nuclear family, traded with countries other than China, women had a greater status, focused more on Buddhism, and had different literature. These differences caused Vietnam to rebel.
What was the relationship between Japan and China like? China never conquered Japan, but they traded with one another.
Why was Japan isolated and what was the result of this? Japan was very mountainous, causing its islands to break up into states. Their written language and religion was completely separate from China's. The trade routes kept it safe from invasion and the Korean Strait was dangerous. China couldn't conquer them
What three philosophies did Japan have? Shintoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.
How was Japanese government different from the Chinese government? The Fujiwara family ruled without a change of power through out the Heian Era, they emphasized Confucianism, art, poetry, and interior design.
Why was the Tale of Genji significant for Japanese culture? Women did not typically receive an education, yet a book written by a women became so popular.
How did feudalism develop in Japan? The Fujiwara family lost power over the government and was replaced by the Minamoto. Their government was extremely militaristic, which brought a time of chaos.
What was equivalent to the knights in feudalism in Japan? The samurai, they followed the Code of Bushido and had complete devotion to their lord.
How was Japanese government similar to Europe's feudalism? They both had no bureaucracy, had peasants complete the labor, ties between lords and vassals, and had less sophisticated governments than those around them.
How was Japanese feudalism different from Europe's? Europe's feudalism was based on contracts, while the Japanese had the honor's system and loyalties There was also no social mobility in Japan, a samurai couldn't become a lord.
What was the purpose of many nomadic groups? To connect civilizations together through trade.
What was Genghis Khan like? He was a brutal and harsh ruler who was talented in gaining allies and manipulating them, and was responsible for unifying the Mongols.
How did Genghis Khan change the Mongols' military? He created sub units in order to end previous loyalties, its highest officials were family members, established the light and heavy cavalry, and made the selection of generals based on merit, which ended arguments.
How did the Mongols conquer China? They destroyed the Great Wall, took their capital, used siege warfare, advanced weapons (crossbows, gunpowder, archery), horseback, fake retreats, had large armies composed of POWs.
What happened after Genghis Khan's death? The khanates were split up and they continued to expand to new territories.
Why were the khanates split? The distance between the borders and capital was too great, arguments among the khans, cultural preferences.
How did the Mongols affect trade? They increased long distance trade of Eurasia by reviving the Silk Road, cultural diffusion increased, Pax Mongolica.
What was one effect trade with the Mongols had on Europe? They got the Bubonic Plague.
How does the status of Mongol women compare to that of Europe? Mongol women had more rights and a higher social status, did not bind their feet, could own property, participated in activities, took part in politics.
How did the Mongols make peace with the Muslims? Ghazan converted to Islam and forced his subjects of the Il Khan Empire to convert to it, they changed their laws to match the religious practices, considered a part of the Golden Age of Islam.
How did Timur's ambitions set up later nomadic Turkish groups? Timur was Turkish, and his conquering of the Il Khan Empire, inspired the Ottomans and Seljuks to form.
What were the downsides of the Mongols' invasion for Russia? They were conquered through force, Novgorod had to pay tribute, feudalism.
What were the benefits of Mongols' invasion for Russia? Increased trade and wealth, had more power than the Mongols, expansion, set Russia on the track to becoming country.
Why was Novgorod's fate different than the rest of Russia's? They paid tribute to the Mongols.
What were the long term effects of the Mongols on Russia? Isolated Russia from the Christians of western Europe and the Renaissance, protected them from the expansion of Europe.
What was China like when the Mongols attacked? Politically weak, weak military, paid tribute to the Jurchen.
Why were there social conflicts between the Mongols and the Chinese? The Chinese were ethnocentric and thought the barbarians were below them, saw Buddhism as a threat.
What was the result of the social conflict between Mongols and the Chinese? The Mongols took over all government positions, got rid of the Civil Service Exam, lowered the scholar gentry's position, weakened Confucianism, segregation, no learning Mongol script.
How were the social classes of the Mongols different than that of China? The Mongols valued merchants and physicians.
How were the Mongols changed by the Chinese? They adapted their music, rituals, calendars, architecture, and kept a tolerance towards Confucianism.
What were the reasons for the Mongols' decline in China? Fights between Mongols and Chinese, couldn't conquer Japan and Korea, Chabi's death, weak rulers, corruption, rebellions.
How did the Ming Dynasty remove all traces of Mongol rule? Revived Confucianism and Civil Service Exams, set up a bureaucracy, moved the capital, less trade, mandarins, defensive government, isolation, shut down Silk Road, rebuilt Great Wall,
Created by: emarciante9



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