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Ch. 12 section 3

Important people, events, and places

William Becknell 1) first Am. trader to reach Santa Fe 2) His route became the Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail 1) Started near Independence, MO, crossed the Great Plains, followed the Arkansas River towards the Rockies 2) It then turned South into New Mexico 3) busy trade route 4) Americans settled the area 5) Many saw it as Manifest Destiny
California Missions 1) settled in the 1700's 2) Gaspar de Portola & Father Junipero established missions 3) from San Diego to Senoma 4) tried to convert Native Am. to Christianity 5) were large "grazing & farming" establishments
John C. Fremont 1) army officer 2) wrote about mild climate & natural resources in Cal. 3) talked about California annexation 4)U.S. would be safely bordered by Pacific Ocean 5) shippers wanted to build ports 6) led many westerns expeditions
Conflict Begins 1) Pres. Polk sent John Sidell to make a deal with Mexico 2) $30 million for Cal. & New Mexico 3) Also take over debts Mexico owed American citizens 4)Mexican Government refused 5) Polk sent General Zachary Taylor and troops across the border
Conflict Begins - cont. 6) Mexico attacked our forces 7) Polk told Congress that Mexico invaded our land and shed Am. blood 8)Congress declared war
Polk's War Plan 1)had 3 parts 2)Am. troops would drive Mexican forces out of disputed border region 3)U.S. would seize Cal. & New Mexico 4) Am. forces would capture Mexico City 5) 1847 first goal accomplished 6) border secure 7) Gen. Stephen Kearney - led Santa Fe attack
Polk's War Plan - cont. 8)Americans captured Santa Fe, NM 1846 9) headed towards California
Bear Flag Republic 1) Am. seized Sonoma north of San Francisco 2) proclaimed it the independent Republic of California or Bear Flag Republic 3) John C. Fremont declared he'd conquer California 4) Californios were outraged 5) U.S. navy captured Monterey & San Francisco ports
Bear Flag Republic - cont. 6)Commodore John Sloat led the navy 7) declared California annexed to the U.S. 8)navy headed for San Diego 9) U.S. captured San Diego 10) Californios revolted after U.S. navy left San Diego 11)Gen. Kearney's troops put down revolt 12) U.S. controlled Cal.
General Winfield Scott 1) given task of capturing Mexico City by Polk 2) March 1847 landed near Veracruz, Mexico 3) captured Veracruz 4) fought 300 miles to Mexico City 5) September 1847 captured Mexico City 6) Mexican government surrendered and half its territory
Mexican Cession 1) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - signed Feb. 1848 2) Mexico gave up TX 3) agreed to the Rio Grande as the border 4) Gave cal. & New Mexico to the U.S. for $15 million
Gadsden Purchase 1) U.S. paid $10 million to Mexico for land land along Arizona & New Mexico 2) U.S. Mainland reached its present size
Created by: mshellabarger