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Lalanne All Terms

World History from Prehistoric to start of Exploration

Monarchy A government ruled by a single person, usually called a king
Republic A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
Etruscans Members of a people who lived north of Rome, Rome's last 3 kings were from this group of people. They built huge temples and Rome's first sewers and Romans learned their alphabet and how to build an arch from them.
Tiber River a major river in Italy; Rome is built on its banks
Horatius He was a hero of early Rome, known for defending the bridge over the Tiber River against the Etruscans in 509 BCE. The Roman Republic was set up right after this battle.
Consuls Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
Tribunes official who was elected by the plebeians to protect their interests
plebeians Farmers, merchants, and workers who made up most of the Roman population
senate A group of 300 men from the patrician order elected to govern Rome in the Roman Republic.
slaves Slavery was a significant part of Roman life. Almost 1/3 of the population were slaves. Slaves were conquered peoples brought by victorious Roman armies and included men, women, and children. According to the law, slaves were the complete property of thei
assembly Plebeian legislature; group of plebeians who participated in lawmaking
patricians The wealthy, hereditary aristocrats during the Roman era.
Julius Caesar 100-44 BC. Roman general who ended Roman Republic. Conquered Gaul with his powerful army. Made himself Roman dictator in 46 BC. Assassinated by Brutus and others in 44 BC because he was too powerful.
Augustus Caesar Also known as Octavius or Octavian; great nephew of Julius Caesar; 1st emperor of the Roman Empire
Pax Romana A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Punic Wars A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Aqueducts Above ground structures used to carry water long distances so that the Roman cities had running water
legion A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback.
Colosseum A large arena in Rome where gladiator contests and other games and sporting events were held in Rome
Pantheon A domed temple in Rome that was completed in 27 BCE, and still stands today
Gladiator A Roman athlete, usually a slave, criminal, or prisoner of war, who was forced to fight for the entertainment of the public
Constantine (274 CE - 337 CE) Roman Emperor between 306 CE and 337 CE. He issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Byzantine Empire (330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
Socrates Greek philosopher; socratic method--questioning; sentenced to death for corrupting Athens' youth
Plato Best known student of Socrates; he started a school in Athens; wrote down his conversations with Socrates
Aristotle Best known student of Plato; taught Alexander the Great; believed he could gain knowledge by observing the natural world
King Darius Persian king who tried to take over ancient Greece, but failed at the Battle of Marathon
King Xerxes Son of Darius; invaded Greece 10 years later; ended up retreating after loosing the battle at Salamis
Pheidippides The man who ran from Marathon to Athens to announce the Greek victory over Persia in the Battle of Marathon (490 BC), and then died.
Delian League an alliance headed by Athens that says that all Greek city-states will come together and help defend against the Persians
Pericles Leader of Athens during the Golden Age; built the Parthenon, led the Delian League; died of the plague during the war with Sparta.
King Leonidas King of Sparta; sacrificed himself with 300 of his soldiers at the Battle of Thermopylae to protect the other Greeks during the Persian War
Battle of Salamis 480 B.C.E. The battle that effectively ended the Persian war. The Greek navy, although vastly outnumbered, defeated the Persian fleet using battle strategy
Athens A Greek city-state with the best navy; known for democracy, learning, theater, and architecture
Sparta A Greek city-state which was the best military power on land; their main god was Ares, god of war; they allowed their women to own businesses and become warriors
Parthenon A large temple dedicated to the goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece
Persian War 5th century BCE wars between the Persian empire and Greek city-states; Greece won
Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) The war between Athens and Sparta; although Sparta did win, this war left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north
siege in war, to surround a city and cut off any supplies from coming in so that the city gives up (for example, when Sparta surrounded the city-state of Athens and the plague killed off most of the people inside Athens)
olives and grapes What two things grow naturally in Greece that Greece is famous for exporting?
Trojan Horse The wooden horse that the Greeks used to trick the Trojans and win the Trojan War
Minotaur Killed by Theseus in this myth, what man-eating monster did King Minos keep in his labyrinth on the island of Crete?
peninsula surrounded by water on all sides; Greece is a good example, which meant that the sea played a major role in Greek culture
Mediterranean Sea a very big sea that separates Europe from Africa; it gave the Greece seafood to eat and a way to travel and trade with many different places
mountains covering 3/4 of the land in Greece, they protected the Greeks from attack while limiting their ability to travel by land
goats and sheep What types of animals did they keep in Greece?
Troy a city-state across the Aegean Sea from Greece, and in the modern-day country of Turkey; fought with Greece in a war started when Helen was 'stolen' from Greece to marry a prince named Paris
Mt. Olympus the mountain where the Greeks believed their main gods and goddesses lived
democracy there are two types: representative, which is what we have today in the USA, and direct, which they had in ancient Greece
Confucianism Chinese belief system from 500s BCE that emphasized family loyalty, filial piety, education, obedience, peace, and ancestors
Daoism Chinese religion from 500s BCE that emphasized following the mystical "Way." It celebrated the harmony of nature as well as the balance of opposites . The Yin and Yang symbolizes many aspects of this religion.
Legalism Chinese philosophy developed by Hanfeizi; taught that humans are naturally evil and therefore need to be ruled by harsh laws
silk road an ancient trade route between China and Europe
filial piety in Confucian thought, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
The Great Wall of China This was built using the labor of farmers. Qin built and extended it to keep out Xiongnu.
dynasty A line of rulers who belong to the same family
Shang dynasty early Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They're best remembered for their art of bronze casting.
Zhou dynasty (1050BC-400BC) Longest dynasty in Chinese history. Established a new political order with king at the highest level, then lords and warriors and then peasants.
The Period of the Warring States the chaotic last centuries of the Zhou dynasty where different powers fought for control of China
Qin dynasty 221-206 BCE, Qin Shi Huangdi defeated all Warring States and used Legalism as its base of belief
Han dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang; it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles; started civil service exams
arable suitable for growing crops [in reference to land or soil]
Yellow River Also known as the Huang-He. The second longest river in China. The majority of ancient Chinese civilizations started in this valley.
Yangtze River China's largest and longest river, and the third longest river in the world
cavalry soldiers on horseback
aristocrat A member of a rich and powerful family and the wealthy social class in a society
noble A member of a rich and powerful family and the wealthy social class in a society
Mandate of Heaven A power or law believed to be granted by a god
tenant farmer Farmer who works land owned by another and pays rent either in cash or crops
emperor the ruler of an empire
Laozi (Lao Tsu) The most famous Daoist teacher; wrote the basic text of Daoism, "The Dao de Ching"
Hanfeizi Founder of legalism and believed that harsh punishments were the only way to control people.
feudalism A political system in which nobles, aristocrats, or lords are given the use of lands that belong to their king, in exchange for their protection, loyalty, and military service
oracle bones animal bones carved with written questions then heated until cracks appear; used for telling the future
loess fine, yellow silt deposited by wind and water; It constitutes the fertile soil of the Yellow River Valley in northern China.
Anyang The ancient Chinese capital of the Shang dynasty.
Terracotta Army one of the top attractions in China; Emperor Qin ordered the creation of the life-sized clay army soldiers. It was a show of his glory, a way to remember the triumph over other states, and it was believed that statues could be resurrected in the after-lif
Golden Rule Do to others whatever you would have them do to you (found in cultures all around the world)
Gobi desert northern China desert
ancestors Family members from past generations (parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, etc.)
pictographs Picture writing; drawings that represent an object or a word
ideographs written language that combines two or more pictographs to represent a more complicated idea
social class A way to categorize or rank people in a society based on money, type of job, power, or prestige
terrace farming a farming system that is in the form of steps going up a mountain
Xiongnu an ancient nomadic people who formed a state or confederation centered in modern Mongolia during the Han dynasty. They raided China and the Chinese called them "barbarians"
Genghis Khan Ruler and war general of the Mongols (1206-1227). He united all of the Mongolian tribes and started the Mongol Empire. He gave himself this name, and it means the "oceanic" or "universal" leader.
Karma the belief that actions in this life, whether good or bad, will decide your place in the next life
4000 years ago This is when the Indus Valley civilization started.
Brahma Hindu god, the Creator
Vishnu Hindu god, the Preserver
Shiva Hindu god, the Destroyer
Brahman the universal spirit that can not be seen or heard
avatar a Hindu god that takes on a human form
Vedas and Upanishads the sacred texts of Hinduism
dharma the natural law that tells people how to behave
reincarnation the Hindu and Buddhist belief that souls are reborn into new bodies over and over
moksha the soul escapes the cycle of rebirth and the soul joins Brahman; the goal of every Hindu
yoga how Hindus practice their religion
Aum the first sound of the universe; begins and ends each prayer
cow This animal is holy to Hindus.
subcontinent a large region that is part of a continent, but is separated somehow
Himalayas the highest mountains in the world to the north of India
Harappa a major city of the Indus Valley civilization
Aryans a group of people that migrated to India 3,500 years ago and set up the caste system
plumbing in the Indus Valley Running water and drainage pipes as good as these would not be seen until 2000 years later with the Romans.
Indus Valley city planning the streets were very straight and organized, the bricks were very well made
caste system the Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life
untouchables lowest level of Indian society; not considered a part of the caste system; others did not want to touch them
Buddha means enlightened; the name given to the man who founded Buddhism
Siddhartha Gautama the man who founded Buddhism and became the Buddha
Nirvana the soul escapes the cycle of rebirth and becomes enlightened; the goal of every Buddhist
Ahimsa non-violence in Buddhism
July August September October The flood of the Nile comes during which four months of the year?
Ramses II Which pharaoh built Abu Simbel?
agriculture What is the practice of growing crops and taming animals?
domestication What is taming animals?
Fertile Crescent What is the region that bends from Egypt through the Middle East to Mesopotamia, is shaped like a croissant, and has very fertile soil due to frequent flooding?
scribe What was the name for someone who wrote things down for a living?
polytheism What is the belief in many gods?
irrigation What is the system of levees and canals used to divert water to crops called?
afterlife a life that some people believe exists after death
delta the end of a river where it goes into the sea and forms a triangular marshy region
Menes / Narmer Which pharaoh united Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt?
Hatshepsut Which pharaoh was the first female ruler?
hieroglyphics What was the formal and religious system of writing called in ancient Egypt?
papyrus Which plant grew by the river and was used to make many things such as paper for writing?
from the south to the north Which way does the Nile river flow?
mummies people who could afford it had their bodies preserved so that they could make the journey through the afterlife
pyramids these were tombs where the pharaohs were buried
Upper Egypt the region of Egypt to the south
Lower Egypt the region of Egypt to the north, including the delta
King Tut He was a boy when he ruled Egypt and died at an early age. His tomb contained many artifacts because it didn't get robbed as much as other tombs.
pharaoh the king or leader of ancient Egypt, was also considered one of the gods
from north to the south Which way does the wind blow most of the time in Egypt?
silt mud and other organic material that is carried down a river and settles on the flood plains after the flood goes away
flood plain the plains or fields right next to the river that become flooded during the flood season
Giza the city where the biggest pyramid is
cataract a large waterfall
Kush or Nubia a civilization to the south of Egypt that had a lot of gold
hieratic script a cursive writing system used for everyday things in ancient Egypt
domestication What is taming animals?
Fertile Crescent What is region that bends from Egypt through the Middle East to Mesopotamia, is shaped like a croissant, and has very fertile soil due to frequent flooding?
Sargon of Akkad Who was the first emperor?
irrigation What is the system of levees and canals used to divert water to crops called?
ziggurat What was the tall temple at the center of the city?
Tigris and Euphrates What were the two rivers surrounding Mesopotamia?
Mesopotamia The name of what region actually means "the land between the rivers." ?
scribe What was the name for someone who wrote things down for a living?
ensi What did they call the priest-king of city-states in Sumer?
Hammurabi Who is the first leader to have written laws?
Hammurabi's Code What is the first system of written laws?
bronze What is a type of metal used in Ancient Mesopotamia and made by mixing tin and copper?
cuneiform What was the written language called?
Iraq What is the modern day country where most of Mesopotamia was located?
chariot What is a two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle used in ancient warfare and racing?
agriculture What is the practice of growing crops and taming animals?
stylus What is the tool they used to write on clay tablets?
Babylon What is the name of the capitol city of Hammurabi's empire?
polytheism What is the belief in many gods?
city-state What is a city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state?
emperor What is the ruler of a large group of countries or regions?
monotheism What is the belief that there is only one God?
Sumer What was the first advanced civilization in Mesopotamia?
Place Location Movement H.E.I. and Region What are the 5 Themes of Geography?
fossil the remains of living things turned into rock
nomad move their home frequently; never staying in the same place for too long
archaeologist scientists who unearth and examine very old buried objects to learn about the past
artifact old tools and utensils made by humans
prehistory the time before history was being written down
Phoenician Alphabet This writing system based on sounds letters make spread throughout the region since the Phoenicians were excellent sailors and used their alphabet to write trading receipts.
River Valleys People always settle here because the land is always more fertile near rivers; the best place to start a civilization.
Hunter-Gatherer Nomadic groups whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods
The Ten Commandments A set of laws that became an important part of three major religions.
surplus An extra supply.
paleolithic Old Stone Age; humans hunted and gathered
neolithic New Stone Age; humans learned to farm and did agriculture
title, key, scale, compass rose What are the four essential map parts?
Magna Carta (1215) a charter of liberties (freedoms) that King John "Lackland" of Englad was forced to sign; it made the king obey the same laws as the citizens of his kingdom
Code of Justinian a collection of Roman laws organized by the Byzantine emperor, Justinian; they later influenced many other legal systems throughout Europe
Age of Exploration time period from the 1400's to the 1600's when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India; resulted in many European colonies in North and South America as well as elsewhere
Created by: welalann



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