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history-post WW1


czar/tsar Russian ruler/emperor
emancipation the fact or process of being set free from legal, social, or political restrictions
Duma a legislative body in the ruling assembly of Russia and of some other republics of the former Soviet Union
abdicate leave the throne
provisional government -consisted of middle-class Duma reps. -urged the czar to step down -headed by Aleksandr Kerensky
Alexander Kerensky head of provisional government
October (November) Revolution Bolsheviks seized Winter Palace and overthrew government
Bolsheviks communist majority faction of the Russian social Democratic workers party
Mensheviks a member of the non-Leninist wing of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party, opposed to the Bolsheviks and defeated by them after the overthrow of the tsar in 1917
Cheka an organization under the Soviet regime for the investigation of counter-revolutionary activities
Politboro the principal policymaking committee of a Communist Party
Great Purge -purged army officers, diplomats, union officials, intellectuals, and ordinary citizens -8 million arrested -millions sent to labor camps
Gulag a system of labor camps maintained in the former Soviet Union from 1930 to 1955 in which many people died
Treaty of Versailles ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers
OVRA secret police of Italy
depression a long and severe recession in an economy or market
inflation/hyperinflation a general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money
Aryan ("master race") term used to identify people speaking Indo-European languages -Nazis misused it by treating it as a racial designation and identifying the Aryans with the ancient Greeks and Romans and 20th century Germans and Scandinavians
Alexander II -came to power during Crimean War -emancipated the serfs -opposed movements for political reforms -was assassinated
Alexander III -reversed his son's reforms -secret police and censorship -russification -persecuted the Jews (pogroms)
pogroms an organized massacre of a particular ethnic group, in particular that of Jews in Russia or eastern Europ
Nicholas was ____ to rule unprepared
what problems did he have? -governing was not his strong point -had very little knowledge -was not interested in Russia nor politics
1898 Coronation -large festival with free food, free beer, and souvenirs -was held in a field outside Moscow
what would the 1896 Coronation come to be known as? Khodynka Tragedy
why was the Russo-Japanese War fought? Russia wanted a warm-water port...accessible all year round
what was the port Russia wanted? Port Arthur
what was the end result? -Japan attacked Russia before formally declaring war -easy victory for Japan
who led the peace treaty negotiations? Teddy Roosevelt
Bloody Sunday -Russian workers led by Father Gapon were to present a petition to the tsar -several hundred were killed/injured
what was the situation concerning Nicholas II's son? -had hemophilia -royal family did not share news about son's illness
Grigori Rasputin -invited to heal Alexei -"Spala Miracle" -reputation as womanizer and drunk -created problems for tsar -advisor to tsarina
what problems did Rasputin create? -persuaded the tsar to take control of the army -filled government posts with friends -disputes with clergy -took charge with almost all aspects of gov
Russia's role in WW1 -member of Triple Entente -greatly unprepared for war
Nicholas II's role in WW1 commander-in-chief after dismissing his cousin from that position
who was left to rule the country? Tsarina Alexandra
what type of relationship did the Duma and Nicholas have during WW1? -the Duma was calling for political reforms -Nicholas was begged to grant a constitution and government responsible to the Duma...he refused
what were some problems going on in Russia? -inflation was out of control -shortages of food and fuel -gov. became more autocratic and restrictive -strikes and rebellions were rampant
how was Rasputin killed? -lured to mansion in promise of a party -ate food and wine filled with cyanide, did not react -shot at close range, but revived and attempted to escape -shot again, beaten, bound, thrown into river -drowned
March Revolution -working class women led a series of strikes -before that, gov. started bread rationing -soldiers sent to suppress them, ended up joining
what led up to the November 1917 revolution? Kerensky made the mistake of continuing the war for the sake of Russia's honor
what did the Duma establish? provisional government
why did Lenin come to Russia? he believed that the Bolsheviks could rise to power
what did the Bolsheviks promise? -end to the war -redistribute all land to the peasants -transfer factories/industries from capitalists to committees of workers -transfer gov. power to soviets
what did the Bolsheviks then do? they seized the Winter Palace, which was the seat of the provisional gov.
Treaty of Brest-Litovisk -because they dropped out of war -signed with Germany -gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, Baltic provinces
Russian Civil War -Reds (Bolsheviks) vs. Whites (Mensheviks) -Bolsheviks victory
who were opposed to the new Bolshevik gov? -groups loyal to tzar -liberals -anti-Leninist socialists
Whites -political differences created distrust -some insisted on restoring the czarist regime, others wanted a more liberal and democratic program
why were the Reds successful? -war communism -Cheka -Russian patriotism
NEP -modified version of old capitalist system -peasants were allowed to sell their produce openly -retail stores/small industries could be privately owned/operated -heavy industries, banking, mines=in hands of gov. -saved the USSR from economic disaster
when Lenin died, there was a struggle for power between... the seven members of the Politboro
Politboro Communist Party's main policy-making body
group led by Kerensky wanted.. -end the NEP -launch Russia on a path of rapid industrialization, at expense of the peasants -wanted to spread communism abroad -believed revolution in Russia would not survive without other communist states
another group wanted... -rejected idea of worldwide communist revolution -wanted to focus on building a socialist state in Russia -continue NEP -believed rapid industrialization would harm living standards of Soviet peasants
Five Year Plans -set economic goals for five-year periods -purpose was to transform Russia from agricultural into an industrial country -emphasized production of military equipment and capital goods
Stalin -established powerful dictatorship -removed Bolsheviks from power -end NEP -Five Year Plans -collectivization
collectivization system in which private farms were eliminated, the gov. owned all of the land and the peasants worked it
what led to widespread famine? hoarding food and killing livestock, STALINS COLLECTIVIZATION
what was Stalin's one concession? each collective farm worker could have one tiny, privately owned garden plot
Karl Marx's communist ideas -utopian society must be classless and stateless -free the lower class from poverty+give them a fighting chance -in order to liberate lower class, gov. should control all means of production one could outdo anyone else by making more money
Karl Marx's communist ideas 2 -revolution must take place to overthrow gov. -dictator must take control
(earlier) Stalin was sppointed what position by Lenin? General Secretary of the Communist Party
explain Stalin's slogan "Socialism in one country" he concentrated on strengthening the Soviet Union rather than world revolution
what happens to Leon Trotsky? he was exiled because he opposed Stalin's plan
why does Stalin want the Soviet Union to modernize? he is afraid that communism will fail and the country will be destroyed by its capitalist neighbors
totalitarian state the government aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens
how did totalitarian regimes achieve the goal of conquering the minds and hearts of their subjects? -mass propaganda -high-speed modern communication
what was the situation like in Italy prior to Mussolini's rise to power? -inflation grew -industrial and agricultural workers staged strikes -socialists spoke of revolution -middle class began to fear a communist takeover
fascism glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a dictatorial ruler
how did Mussolini rise to power? -fear of socialism, communism, and disorder made fascism attractive -Italians were angry over the peace settlement (did not receive more land) -nationalistic appeals
methods used by Mussolini -laws made by decree -police had unrestricted authority -outlawed other political parties -established secret police -exercised control over mass media -used organizations such as Fascist Youth Groups -made deal with Catholic Church to get support
what were Hitler's core ideas? racism and anti-Semitism
Mein Kampf -links anti-Semitism, anticommunism, and nationalism by a Social Darwinian Theory of struggle -theory emphasizes the right of superior nations to lebensraum through expansion -upholds the right of superior individuals to gain authoritarian leadership
Enabling Act -law gave the government the power to ignore the constitution for 4 years while it issued laws to deal with the country's problems -have Hitler's actions a legal basis
Nuremburg Laws -excluded Jews from German citizenship -stripped Jews of their civil rights -forbade marriages between Jews and Germans -could not teach for take part in the arts -required to wear stars of David
Kristallnacht -destructive rampage -Nazis burned synagogues -destroyed 7,000 Jewish businesses -30,000 Jewish males were rounded up and sent to concentration camps
Kristallnacht led to.. -Jews were barred from all public transportation and public buildings, including schools and hospitals -prohibited from owning, managing, or working in any retail store -forced to clean up debris and damage from Kristallnacht
The Nazi goals... -the development of an Aryan racial state that would dominate the world for generations to come -create 3rd Reich
role of the SS -important force for maintaining order -controlled secret/regular police -further Aryan race
women and youth -women=bearer of children -children will be triumph of Aryan race -jobs included nursing and social work
Nuremburg Rallies -held every September -evoked mass enthusiasm and excitement
Created by: amandathornton



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