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Biochem block5

QuestionAnswer
Only one functional telomerase gene Telomeres shorten rapidly Age prematurely – grey hair in teens etc. Die in early adulthood from bone marrow failure and inability to fight infections Dyskeratosis congenita
Fidelity/accuracy of mRNA translation becomes impaired. aging Codon restriction
Fidelity of gene expression declines – results in increased fraction of abnormal proteins Error catastrophe
Accumulation of molecular damage to genetic material (aging) Somatic mutation
Gradual accumulation of random molecular damage impairs regulation of gene expression Dysdifferentiation
Aging is caused by changes in gene expression regulating both development and aging Gene regulation
Familial accelerated aging progeroid syndromes
2 progeroid syndromes Werner and Hutchinson-Gilford (infantile)
protein-like helicases RecQ
Hutchinson-Gilford (infantile) problem LMNA gene for Lamin A
Wiedemann – Rautenstranch syndrome Progeroid syndrome when they eat everything at Mystore and Gillet gets pissed because of it
Homolytic fission of a covalent bond will produce Free Radicals
Stable radical vitamin E
persistent radical melanin
CoQ and other sites create ROS what percentage of the time 3-5%
Tx for metHb reductase deficiency High dose of vitamin C
mitochondrial role in apoptosis cyt C binds Apaf-1 and procaspase 9 --------> activates caspase 3 ---> apoptosis
Amadori product glycated protein (A1c)
pentosidine AGE
Collagen crosslinking leads to deterioration with aging (eg. cloudy cornea)
Macrophage scavenger receptor CD36
possible drug targetting aging metformin
HSP-70 Heat shock protein-dismantles damaged proteins DECREASES with age
Plant antioxidants Vitamin C (ascorbate), vitamin E (α-tocopherol and tocotrienols) and β-carotene.
#1 antioxidant rich food Small red bean (dried)
Darker or light vegs have more anti ox? darker
a glycoside, attaches to Fe2+, preventing free radical formation from H2O2 - anti-platelet activity - Inhibitor of angiogenesis. found in buckwheat, asparagus, citrus, apple, mulberry, cranberry and green tea Rutin
An anthocyanidin found in red grapes and many berry fruits. Putative antioxidant/radical scavenger that protects against CVD and cancer Cyanidin
An antioxidant found in potato, peach, prune and coffee - may cause laxative effect of prunes. Modestly decrease BP; Reduce colon cancer in mice and Induce DNA repair enzymes PARP and PMS2 Chlorogenic acid
***A stilbenoid - one of the most promising plant antoxidants - found in red grapes, juice and red wine*** Resveratrol
Responsible for the red colour of tomatoes, water melon and pink guava. Absorbed from lipid micelles in the small intestine and transported in chylomicrons Lycopene
The DRI for fiber is the RDA set at 14 g/1000kcal, which is about 25 g and 35 g for women and men respectively.
can slow development of atherosclerosis, balance lipoproteins, modestly reduce BP and show anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory activities. found in garlic Allicin
Beano contains α-galactosidase
untreatable muscle-wasting. inflammatory cytokines play a role cachexia
protein deficiency disease. symptoms: stunted growth, edema, skin lesions, depigmented hair, anorexia, enlarged fatty liver, decreased plasma albumin concentration Kwashiorkor
energy (calorie) deficiency disease. symptoms: arrested growth, extreme muscle wasting (shrunken with skin & bones only - old monk face), weakness and anemia Marasmus
Created by: SzechuanSauceEPL