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Reconstruction

TermDefinition
Reconstruction Era 1865-1877/ Lincoln started planning for the reconstruction of the South during the Civil War as Union soldiers occupied huge areas of the South/ rebuild and restore state governments/ three new amendments to Constitution approved
13th Amendment 1865/Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude
14th Amendment 1868/ citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed/ excluded Native Americans
15th Amendment 1870/ ALL men the right to vote regardless of race or color/ election of 1872 will be the first time vote
Radical Reconstruction Radical Republicans/ punish southerners/ purposed Wade-Davis Bill/ their efforts would cause Democratic Party to dominate southern politics for 100 years
Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan 1863/ grant amnesty to Southerners but not to leaders/ when 10% of Southern voters pledge loyalty to Union then state could form new gov’t. (Ten-Percent Plan) / must adopt new constitution banning slavery
Assassination of Lincoln April 1865/ Ford’s Theater/ John Wilkes Booth
Tenure of Office Act President may not fire any gov’t officials without Senate’s approval
Andrew Johnson 17th President/ Lincoln’s successor/ sympathized with South/ vetoed Civil Rights Act, but Radical Republicans overwrite his veto/ almost impeached 1868 for violating Tenure of Office Act
Edwin Stanton Secretary of War/ supporter of Radical Reconstruction/ President Johnson released him without permission from Senate violating Tenure of Office Act
Ulysses S. Grant 18th President / war hero/ wins election 1868 defeated Democrat Horatio Seymour.
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan 1865/ Grant amnesty to most Southerners, but Southern leaders had to ask for it individually = humiliation/ must adopt new constitution banning slavery/ ratify 13th Amendment/ by 1865 10 states rejoined Union except Texas
First Reconstruction Act March 2, 1867/ required legislative branches of former CSA to ratify the 14th Amendment before being readmitted to the Union/ CSA were divided into 5 military districts under the direction of Union military officers/ CSA have to enact new constitutions t
Civil Rights Act of 1866 Granted citizenship to African-Americans/reinforced with passing of 14th Amendment
Black Codes laws passed by southern states to control free men and women/ limited voting rights - must be literate/ slavery in disguise/ violated rights/ reaction to Thirteenth Amendment
poll tax tax a person must pay in order to vote.
Jim Crow Laws Southern laws requiring African-Americans and whites to be segregated in public i.e. bathrooms/ theaters/ water fountains
Freedmen’s Bureau Set up to protect former slaves/ help find jobs and expand education opportunities
Ku Klux Klan Society of former Confederate soldiers/ used terrorism to reduce opportunities for African-Americans
Compromise of 1877 Between Southern Democrats and northern Republicans/ Republican Rutherford B. Hayes chosen president in exchange for federal troops leaving southern states
Morrill Act 1862/ provided land grants to states to build colleges specializing in agriculture and the mechanic arts/ encouraged states to build 1st public college
Scalawags Name given by former Confederates to Southern whites who supported Republican Reconstruction of the South.
Carpetbaggers Northerners Who took advantage of the South/ scams
Hiram Rhodes Revels Minister/ 1st African-American U.S. Senate/ chosen by Mississippi 1870
Homestead Act 1862/ Sped up western settlement/ granted 160 acres of public land/ homesteaders paid a small fee and were required to complete five years of continuous residence before receiving ownership of the land
Dawes Act Divided Native Americans’ lands among individual members and disrupted culture
sharecropping system of farming in which a farmer works the land for an owner who provides equipment and seeds and receives a share of the crop.
Plessy vs. Ferguson May 1896/ landmark court cast/ stated segregation legal if "separate but equal" facilities were provided to both whites and blacks/ facilities rarely "equal"
Created by: pdelam4