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Clostridium diff

Micro Unit VIII Anaerobes

How is Clostridium difficile acquired and what disease(s) is it know to cause? Clostridium difficile is acquired nosocomially as a result of antibiotic use in hospitals and communities . This organism is known to cause Clostridium difficile associated diarrheal disease (CDAD) and pseudomembranous colitis (PMC).
What is the single most important risk factor for toxigenic C. diff and what 2 groups can harbor this organism asymptomatically? The single most important risk factor for toxigenic C. diff is antibiotic exposure, particularly to Clindamycin. The two patient groups that can harbor this organism asymptotically are infants and cystic fibrosis patients.
What are the C. diff toxins, what do they do, and how are they detected? The C. diff toxins are toxin A, a tissue-damaging enterotoxin, and toxin B. They are detected using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) which utilizes enzyme-antibody-antigen complexes that produce a purple color, indicating the presence of C. diff toxins.
What other methods can be used to identify a toxigenic C. diff infection? What agar should be used when culturing this organism from a stool? Other tests used to detect toxigenic C. diff are cytotoxicity assay/tissue culture, latex agglutination, stool culture, genetic analysis, endoscopy, or a colonoscopy. For stool cultures, cycloserie, cefoxitin, fructose, and egg yolk (CCFYA) agar is used.
How can C. diff be treated and which one is the preferred method? C. diff can be treated with Metronidazole therapy (the preferred treatment method), oral Vancomycin, or fluid replacement with electolytes such as Pedialyte (containing Na, K, Cl, Citrate, and Dextrose)
Created by: jrzuck



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