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HIST DPRSSN ERA CRDS

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian U.S. HIST "Depression Era" Test Flashcards 2022

QuestionAnswer
What does the term "Bull Market" mean/ refer to? This term means "a long period of rising stock prices".
What does the term "Margin Call" mean/ refer to? This term refers to stock brokers demanding that investors repay loans that individual investors had used to buy stocks immediately.
What does the term "margin" mean, refer to? This term refers to the practice of individual investors paying a small down payment on a stock order and then borrowing the rest of the money from their stock broker.
What happened on "Black Tuesday"? On that day, stock market prices fell drastically. 16 million shares of stock were sold in a single day & the stock market lost between $10 billion to $15 billion in value. Triggered the Great Depression.
What is a "bank run"? This happens when "many depositors decide to withdraw their money at one time, usually because of fear that the bank is going to collapse."
What two (2) factors contributed to Herbert Hoover's election in 1928? 1.) An apparently strong economy; 2.) Rising stock market prices.
What effect did tariff ("tax") policies have on the Great Depression? These policies led to a decrease in export trade, which further hurt the economy.
What did the Hawley - Smoot Tariff do/ result in? This tariff ("tax") raised the average tax rate to the highest rate in American history. It failed to help U.S. businesses because foreign countries responded with their own taxes, which hurt American import & export businesses.
What does the term "bailiffs" mean/ refer to? This term refers to court officers who are responsible for helping to maintain order in court rooms.
What environmental event worsened during the Great Depression? Drought and resulting crop failures, which were the two causes of the "Dust Bowl" event.
How did people try to escape the realities of the Great Depression? People watched movies and listened to radio broadcasts for entertainment to escape this reality.
List the two (2) things that President Herbert Hoover did to try to rescue banks during the Great Depression. 1.) He set up the National Credit Corporation (NCC), which pooled money and allowed troubled banks to keep loaning money in their communities; 2.) Set up the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to make loans to businesses.
What does the term "public works" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "government financed building projects".
What was the "Bonus Army"? This was the name given to the large number of World War I veterans who marched to Washington, D.C. to support passage of a bill that would allow them to get their $1,000 veteran bonuses right away (instead of making them wait until 1945).
What two (2) major strategies did President Hoover use to promote general economic recovery? 1.) Encouraged businesses to stop laying off workers; 2.) Created public works projects.
List two (2) problems and dangers that the dust storms that swept through the west (the "Dust Bowl") created. 1.) Breathing problems, particularly for the aged and children; 2.) Damage to equipment such as engines.
How did some Great Plains farmers respond to the loss of their fields to the banks? Many farmers headed west, hoping to find a better life in California.
What were the three (3) roots of the Great Depression? 1.) An uneven distribution of income; 2.) Loss of export sales; 3.) Mistakes by the Federal Reserve Board.
What was the "Teapot Dome Scandal? This was a famous incident that occurred during President Harding's term in office. His Secretary of the Interior secretly allowed private companies to lease lands that had oil belonging to the U.S. Navy on them, earning $300,000 for himself.
What was the "Kellogg - Briand Pact"? This was a treaty whose purpose was to try to outlaw war. Stated that all nations who signed it would abandon war and would settle disputes by peaceful means.
What does the term "mass production" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "large - scale manufacturing done with machinery in order to increase supply and decrease costs".
How does Henry Ford relate to the term "assembly line"? He was the first person to use this technique in the manufacturing process.
What does the term "open shop" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a workplace where employees were not required to join a union" in order to work there.
List two (2) ways that the introduction of the automobile to American society effected its people. 1.) It eased rural isolation, allowing people a means of coming into larger cities to socialize; 2.) It allowed workers to live further away from their work.
What did the Emergency Quota Act do/ provide for? This law restricted the annual admission to the United States to only 3% of the total number of people in any ethnic group already living in the U.S.
What did the National Origins Act do/ provide for? This law made immigration restriction a permanent policy. Quotas were set at 2% of each national group represented in the U.S. Census of 1890.
What did the 18th Amendment do/ provide for? This Amendment banned the manufacture, sale, and distribution of all alcohol in the United States.
What did the 21st Amendment do/ provide for? This Amendment repealed the 18th Amendment.
What was the "Great Migration"? This was the name of the movement of African Americans from the rural South to the North in search of factory jobs in the 1920's.
What does the term "Dust Bowl" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the area where large dust storms were created in the mid - 1920's to 1930's. These occurred due to the lack of plants serving as "wind breaks" whose roots would keep topsoil from becoming airborne.
What does the term "public works" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "government financed building projects" that were created to help unemployed workers find jobs during the Great Depression.
What was the "New Deal"? This was the name for President Roosevelt's programs aimed at helping the U.S. recover from the effects of the Great Depression.
What was the Civilian Conservation Corps? This was an agency created during the New Deal years that offered unemployed men ages 18 - 25 the chance to work for the U.S. Forestry service, planting trees, fighting forest fires, and building reservoirs.
What is the Securities Exchange Commission? This is an agency of the federal government that was created during the New Deal. Its purpose is to regulate the stock market and prevent fraud in order to help prevent anything like the Great Depression from happening again.
What does the term "100 Days" mean/ refer to? This term refers to President Roosevelt's first 100 days in office, during which he passed 15 major acts to try to help resolve the country's economic crises (related to the Great Depression).
Who was Marcus Garvey? He was an African American leader originally from Jamaica. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) , which promoted black unity and pride.
What is the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)? This is an organization that was founded to to battle against segregation and discrimination against African Americans.
What style of music is considered the "root" of "blues" music? African American Spirituals are the "root" of this kind of music.
What style of music is considered the "root" of "jazz" music? Dixieland blues and ragtime are both considered the "root" of this kind of music.
What does the term "gold standard" mean/refer to? This term refers to the situation in American economics when 1 ounce of gold equaled a set number of dollars.
What is the purpose of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)? The purpose of this is to provide government insurance for bank deposits up to a certain amount.
What is the purpose of the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC)? The purpose of this is to regulate the stock market and prevent fraud.
How did the government restore confidence in the banking system? Roosevelt ordered a bank holiday, signed teh Emergency Banking Relief Act into law, & addressed the nation in a "fireside chat". He also supported the Glass-Steagall Act.
What was the Glass-Steagall Banking Act? This prevented commercial banks from risking depositor's money by using it to speculate on the stock market. It also separated commercial banking from investment banking.
What was the goal of the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)? The goal of this agency was to improve the lot of farmers.
what was the purpose of the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)? The goal of this was to set cooperative codes of fair competition and improve the economy.
What was the purpose of the "American Liberty League"? The purpose of this group was to "organize opposition to the New Deal & "teach the necessity of respect for the rights of person and property".
List three (3) criticisms that prompted the Second New Deal. 1.) Economy did not improve quickly after 2 years; 2.) Right wing critics of the New Deal felt that it regulated businesses too tightly. 3.) Southern Democrats feared the expansion of the federal government.
List two (2) types of programs that the Works Progress Administration (WPA) completed. 1.) Building roads, highways, and streets. 2.) Building parks.
What did the Wagner Act do/establish? This act guaranteed workers the right to organize unions and to bargain collectively.
Why was the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) established? This was established to organize unions, skilled or unskilled, in a particular industry. It focused on the automobile and steel industries first.
What is the goal of the Social Security Act? This goal of this is to provide some financial security for older Americans and unemployed workers.
What does the term "binding arbitration" mean/ refer to? This term refers to a process in which dissatisfied union members could take their complaints to a neutral party who woudl listen to both sides and decide on the issues.
What is the purpose of the National Labor Relations Board? The purpose of this is to organize factory elections by secret ballot to determine whether workers wanted a union.
Created by: sticklerpjpII
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