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Cold War #01

GA 5th Grade Common Core Social Studies Standards

What is an arms race? a contest between nations to build more powerful weapons
What is market economy? an economic system in which people and businesses make most economic decisions
What was the iron curtain? a symbol of the differences dividing communist and non-communist countries in Europe
What is welfare? a government program that helps people in need
What was the baby boom? the big increase in births during the 1950s due to the end of WWII. Many people delayed getting married and starting families until after the war was over.
What is Communism? a system of government in which the government has total control of the people and the economy (usually uses a “command” economy)
What is a veteran? someone who has served in the military
What is a cease fire? an agreement to stop all fighting
What is prosperity? economic success and security
What is a generation? a group of people born and living at about the same time
What is capitalism? an economic system in which ordinary people and business control the production of goods and services
What does it mean to overthrow? to remove someone from power
What is a nonviolent protest? a way of bringing change without using violence
What was the space race? a competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to send people into outer space
How did mass media affect people in the United States? Mass media is media that is directed at large numbers of people, like movies, radio shows, or the news on television. It began influencing how people thought and what they bought. They were able to see things that were happening far away in their own living rooms.
Why did people start moving away from the cities and into the suburbs after World War II? How is this different from what was going on before World War II? Before WWII, people were living in the cities where there were jobs available because of the Great Depression. People started moving away from the cities and into the suburbs because they had more money and needed more room for their growing families! Also, with the development of the interstate transportation system and better automobiles, traveling from the suburbs to the cities became easier.
What is consumerism? “Consumerism” is the idea of buying consumer goods to achieve happiness.
How did consumerism affect the U.S. economy after WWII? There was a bigger demand for consumer goods after the war ended. Also, service industries grew.
What were new technologies of the 1950s that improved the lives of the American people? Jet airliners, new changes in automobiles (automatic transmissions, radial tires, power steering), long-distance telephone service, air conditioning
Why did Explain the job market expand and why did service industries grow after World War II? During World War II, factories were producing goods to support the war effort. After World War II ended, they switched back to producing consumer goods. With the birth of more babies and the needs to take care of them, service industries like health care, dry-cleaning, and child-related services grew. As people worked and earned money, the banking industry grew.
Why was the Cold War called a “cold” war? “Cold” can refer to hostility and anger. The Cold War was a war of words and ideas.
How did the fear of a cold war affect the lives of ordinary citizens? Schools had “duck and cover” drills, people built bomb shelters in their homes,
In what ways did women’s roles change after World War II? In the 50s, women went back into the home to be stay-at-home moms. But into the 60s and 70s, more women began working. They worked hard to gain equal rights with men and close the earnings gap between men and women doing the same jobs. The Equal Pay Act, Title IX education amendment, and proposed Equal Rights Amendment were efforts to improve the status of women.
What is McCarthyism? Joseph McCarthy was a U.S. senator that accused many people of being spies for communist Soviet Union. McCarthyism refers to mass panic and suspicion of others of being communist in the United States.
Why did the United States want to keep communism from spreading? The United States did not want communism to spread because they did not agree with its philosophies, were afraid of world domination by communists, and were afraid of nuclear war.
What was the Korean War about? The Korean War was between communist North Korea and non-communist South Korea. North Korea invaded South Korea. The United States and other countries got involved to help South Korea defend itself against communism to keep communism from spreading and pushed the North Koreans back into their country.
How did the Korean War end? The country remains divided today at the 38th parallel, and North Korea is still communist and a nuclear threat to the world. South Korea is NOT communist.
What was the Cuban Missile Crisis? In 1962, Cuba (a communist country off the coast of Florida VERY close to the U.S.) allowed the Soviet Union to come into the country and place nuclear missiles aimed at the United States. President Kennedy ordered a blockade of Cuba and prevented Soviet ships from reaching Cuba. Finally, the Soviet Union removed the missiles when the U.S. promised not to attack Cuba. It is the closest the world has ever come to nuclear war.
What did the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union trigger? The space race was the competition between the Soviet Union and the United States to send people into outer space. The Soviets had the first satellite (Sputnik) and then the first man (Yuri Gagarin) in space, but the United States had the first man on the moon (Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin).
What was the Vietnam War about? In the early 1960s, North Vietnam was divided into 2 countries: North Vietnam was communist, and South Vietnam was not. The United States got involved to try to prevent the spread of communism. The war went on from 1965 to 1973. Eventually, a cease-fire agreement was signed, American soldiers left, and 2 years later, North Vietnam invaded and took over South Vietnam. The country was united under communism.
Why did so many Americans begin to oppose the Vietnam War? The Vietnam War was the first war seen on television. People saw the terrible effects of war and became divided in their opinions about whether we should be fighting or not. The war went on longer than Americans expected, and the longer the war drug on, the more people opposed it. They felt it was not the U.S.’s job to patrol and protect the world.
What was the Berlin Wall, who built it, and why was it built? The Berlin Wall was a wall that was built by the Soviets around East Berlin to prevent people from East Germany from escaping into West Berlin and then into non-communist West Germany. They did not want all of their workers to leave, because communism depends on workers.
When did the Berlin Wall come down? The Berlin Wall was finally torn down in 1989. This became the symbolic end to the Cold War.
When and why did the Cold War eventually end? The Cold War finally ended after the Berlin Wall came down and East and West Germany were reunited. Soon after, the Soviet Union fell apart and other countries began setting up non-communist governments. It was finally over in 1990-1991, when the last country declared its independence from the Soviet Union and the union ceased to exist.
What is the UN and why was it formed? The United Nations is a group of countries from all over the world that work together. The United Nations was formed after WWII to keep peace around the world and prevent future world wars.
What is NATO and why was it formed? NATO is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. NATO was formed to protect the countries in the organization against communism.
What is OPEC and why was it formed? OPEC is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. It was formed to help regulate the production, prices, and trade of petroleum/oil around the world.
What was the Berlin Airlift? When the Soviets created a blockade leading to West Berlin in an effort to force the Allies out, the U.S. and Britain refused to leave and instead they flew food and supplies into the city each day.