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annex to attach, append, or add, especially to something larger or more important
mobilize prepare and organize (troops) for active service
propaganda information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view
trench warfare a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other
war of attrition a prolonged war or period of conflict during which each side seeks to gradually wear out the other by a series of small-scale actions
zeppelin a large German dirigible airship of the early 20th century, long and cylindrical in shape and with a rigid framework
u-boat a German submarine
Lusitania a British luxury liner sunk by a German submarine in the North Atlantic
total war a war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the laws of war are disregarded
self-determination the process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and government
reparations the compensation for war damage paid by a defeated state
mandate an official order or commission to do something
why did Otto von Bismarck make a defensive alliance with Austria-Hungary? he feared that France intended to create an anti-German alliance
why did Emperor William II drop the treaty with Russia? he wanted to enhance German power
what were the results of dropping the treaty? France formed an alliance with Russia, which resulted in Germany having a hostile power on eastern and western borders
what Balkan territory operated under Russia? Bulgaria
what Balkan territories were protected under Austria-Hungary? Bosnia and Herzegovina
describe the Bosnian Crisis -A-H annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina -this led to a controversy with international complications that threatened to end in a general European war
how did Russia and Austria-Hungary come to war with eachother? Russia supported the Serbs and opposed the annexation
what was the situation like between Serbia and Austria-Hungary? -Serbs blamed their inability to create a large Serbian Kingdom on A-H -A-H was convinced that Serbia and Serbian nationalism were mortal threats to its empire and must be crushed
what does the M stand for in MANIA militarism
what does the A stand for in MANIA alliances
what does the N stand for in MANIA nationalism
what does the I stand for in MANIA imperialism
what does the A stand for in MANIA assassination
militarism the aggressive preparation for war -growth of large armies -plans for mobilization of soldiers
conscription military draft
where was conscription NOT established? United States and Great Britain
alliances loose agreements among nations
Treaty of London (Act 7) Britain agrees to protect neutrality of Belgium
why did Germany and Austria-Hungary form an alliance in 1879? to protect eachother if Russia attacks
why did France and Russia form an alliance in 1892? military assistance both ways in event of an attack
nationalism cultural identity of people through common language, religion, and symbols -rivalries over colonies grew -nationalism had another result=ethnic groups formed nations
imperialism extension of a nation's power over other lands
who was Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated by? Gaurilo Princip
who did Austria-Hungary ally with? Germany, *Italy
why did Austria-Hungary enter the war? they wanted to punish Serbia for encouraging terrorism and the assassination of the Archduke and his wife; Serbia rejected Austria-Hungary ultimatum
who did Germany ally with? Austria-Hungary, *Italy
why did Germany enter the war? they stood by their one-dependable ally, Austria-Hungary
who did Serbia ally with? Russia
why did Serbia enter the war? they were attacked by Austria-Hungary after the assassination of the Archduke and they were outraged at them for annexing Bosnia and Herzegovia
who did Russia ally with? Serbia, France, Britain
why did Russia enter the war? they wanted to defend the Slavic people in Serbia
who did France ally with? Russia, Britain
why did France enter the war? they wanted to avoid facing Germany alone at a later date -Germany declared war on them because Germany could not mobilize troops solely against Russia
who did Belgium ally with? no one, they were neutral
why did Belgium enter the war? they were invaded by Germany-Schlieffen Plan
who did Britain ally with? France, Russia
why did Britain enter the war? they were outraged by the invasion of Belgium
what was the "spark" that started the war? the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
what was the result of this/ Austria-Hungary declared on Serbia
what countries made up the Central Powers? -Germany -Austria-Hungary -Ottoman Empire -Bulgaria
what countries made up the Allied Powers? -Russia -France -Britain -Serbia -Japan -Italy -US
why was the war called the Great War? -touched all things human -killed more people than any previous war -impacted people away from the front -fought on land, underground, air, on/under water
what new were some new weapons in the war? -trench warfare -poison gas -submarines -airships -armored tanks
what were the countries on the Western Front? Germany and France
what was the Schlieffen Plan? Germany army goes through Belgium to get to France -stopped short of Paris
First Battle of Marne to stop Germans, French military loaded 2,000 Parisian taxicabs with fresh troops and sent them to the front line -Germany realizes war will not be short
what were the countries on the Eastern Front? Russia, Austria-Hungary, Germany
what was the Eastern Front based on? mobility
why did Italy betray the Triple Alliance? France and Britain promised them land
what also happened on the Eastern Front? -Russians were defeated by the Germans -Serbia was kicked out of the war
describe the situation at sea both Germany and Britain set up submarine blockades on eachother
the United States wanted to remain neutral but... increased loans exports to Allies and decreased exports to Germany and its allies
what were the 2 causes of the United States entering the war? -The sinking of the Lusitania -the Zimmerman note
sinking of Lusitania -Germany sunk British ship with Americans on board -America was outraged
Zimmerman Note -intercepted and decoded by the British -Germany assumed that by resuming unrestricted submarine warfare, the United States would get involved with the war
what happened in 1918? Russia withdraws
why did Russia withdraw from the war? -suffered many losses -had two revolutions within country that caused a lot of turmoil
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk -Russia lost land, paid money, and lost Ukraine -terminated November 1918
why was the armistice signed? the United States brought peace to the war, in favor of the Allied Powers
when was the armistice signed? November 11, 1918
propaganda ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
why was propaganda used? what purpose did it have? -to gain support/hate -raise money -encourage people to use resources
"the Hun" Germany
why was Germany called "the Hun" because of their invasion on Belgium
what was Britain's reason for why Germans killed? it was in their DNA
how were the Germans portrayed in Anti-Allies propaganda? the victim
describe the differences between fundraising posters in the U.S. and Germany U.S.-scary tone, commanding, rations, help soldiers Germany-RELIGION, medieval
where was the Treaty of Versailles signed? Versailles, Hall of Mirrors
when was the Treaty of Versailles signed? June 1919
armistice a truce/agreement to end fighting
when was the armistice signed? November 11, 1918
who came up with the peace plan? Woodrow Wilson
what was the peace plan? reconstruct a new Europe following the Great War; justify the struggle being waged
what was the Fourteenth Point? A world association of nations to keep the peace; based on democracy and international cooperation...LEAGUE OF NATIONS
The Big Four 1. Italy 2. Great Britain 3. France 4. U.S.
who was the Italy rep? Vittorio Orlando
who was the U.S. rep? Woodrow Wilson
who was the France rep? Georges Clemenceau
who was the Britain rep? David Lloyd George
what does the B stand for in BRAT? Blame (for war)
what does the R stand for in BRAT? Reparations
what does the A stand for in BRAT? Arms (reduced)
what does the T stand for in BRAT? Territory (lost)
what were the new nations? -Finland -Lotvia -Estonia -Lithuania -Poland -Czechoslovakia -Austria -Hungary -Yugoslavia
what were the lost nations? -Serbia -Montenegro
reparations payments to cover war cost
what effect did the reparations have on Germany? sank into deep depression-->look for new leader
war-guilt Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles, the beginning of the reparations section that stated Germany was to assume all responsibility for the damage caused during World War I
what was the effect of the war-guilt? Germany was responsible for all war damage
League of Nations an organization so the countries of the world come together; prevent wars
how many countries made up the League of Nations? 63 countries
what were the problems of the League of Nations? -had no army of its own -country could not be forced to obey the league -was weak because the US refused to become a member -creation of the mandate system (middle east)
stalemate a position counting as a draw, in which a player is not in check but cannot move except into check
Created by: amandathornton
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