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Science #4

Grades 5 to 8

What percentage of Earth's surface is covered by tropical rain forests? 2
What percentage of Earth's animals live in the tropic rain forest? more than 50%
Where is the largest tropical rain forest? Surrounding the Amazon River in South America
What fraction of the world's rain forests have been chopped down in the last 30 years? more than 1/2
If the tropical rain forests are destroyed, the _______ __ ________ of the whole world might change. balance of nature
Animals that are active during the day and sleep at night are ___________. diurnal
Animals that are active at night and sleep during the day are ___________. noturnal
Most animals are diurnal because it's easier to see in the daylight.
The study of how plants and animals live together and interact with each other in their natural surroundings ecology
Natural home where a plant or animal finds the food, water, and space it needs to survive habitat
Group of different plants and animals that live in a habitat community
Individuals of a species at a given time and place population
How the plants and animals within a habitat interact with each other and with the nonliving parts of their environment ecosystem
Path of the Water Cycle evaporation, condensation, precipitation
Where do plants and animals get nitrogen? Bacteria breaks down the nitrogen into forms that plants can use. When animals eat the plants, they obtain nitrogen. Dead plants and animals also release nitrogen into the soil.
Gradual change of plants and animals to their surroundings adaptation
___________ protects animals from being seen by their enemies and allows them to sneak up on their prey. Camouflage
Movement of animals over the same route in the same season each year migration
When an animal's body processes slow down and they survive on stored food until their food source is available again hibernation
Endangered animals Bald eagle, grizzly bear, California condor, whooping crane, Indiana bat, American peregrine falcon, cheetah, and bobcat (Mexican)
One edition of a major daily newspaper such as The New York Times or the Chicago Tribune uses wood from as many as 5,000 trees
41% of the trash in the USA paper
Thin layer of earth's atmosphere that is wearing out because of chlorofluorocarbons ozone
Alternative to burning fossil fueis nuclear power plants
Problem with nuclear power plants radioactive wastes and thermal pollution
Increase in amount of greenhouse gases may cause global warming
Earth's age according to scientists 4.6 billion years
outermost layer of the Earth ranging from 3 to 22 feet thick crust
Found beneath the crust, this hot molten layer that is 1800 miles thick. mantle
Outermost layer of molten rock of Earth's core outer core
Innermost layer of solid rock of Earth's core inner core
How thick is Earth's core? 2100 miles
Determining age of a fossil based on the other plants and animals at that time period relative dating
Determining age of a fossil based on the radioactive decay absolute dating
__________ __________ are continental masses that are constantly on the move. tectonic plates
__________ __________ is caused by the movement of tectonic plates. continental drift
Rocks formed by heat igneous
Rocks formed by heat and pressure metamorphic
Rocks formed by layers of sand, silt, clay, and other rocks sedimentary
Common sedimentary rocks sandstone, limestone, shale
Common metamorphic rocks slate, marble, quartzite
Common igneousrocks granite, obsidian, basalt
Rocks never go away; they just become another rock by melting, heating, cooling, weathering, or pressure Rock Cycle
For what is the rock marble used? building
For what is the rock slate used? roofing and furniture
For what is the rock clay used? pottery
For what is the rock coal used? heat
For what is the rock limestone used? buildings
Natural, nonliving substances made up of particles that are arranged in regular crystalline patterns minerals
Common minerals salts, talc, metal ores, gemstones
Characteristics given to rocks by minerals color, hardness, texture, density, and luster
Luster of rocks glassy, metallic, pearly
Rocks' Scale of Hardness Moh's Scale
Softest mineral talc
Hardest mineral diamond
Living or once living organic
Organic part of soil humus
Four types of soil clay, loam, sand, silt
Which continent is the largest? Eurasia
Which continent is the smallest? Australia
Super sized continent of 200 million years ago Pangaea
How are landforms created? erosion, weathering, volcanoes, earthquakes
Rises 1,000 feet above Earth's surface mountains
Gigantic sheets of ice glaciers
Piles of rock and soil left by glaciers glacial till
North America's tallest mountain Mount McKinley in Alaska (20,320 feet)
Africa's tallest mountain Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania (19,340 feet)
Asia's tallest mountain and the world's tallest mountain Mount Everest in Nepal-Tibet (29,035 feet)
Water makes a _-shaped valley V
Glaciers make a _-shaped valley U
Plains surrounding rivers and streams floodplains
High, flat land plateaus
Another name for plateaus tablelands
Valley with very steep sides canyons
Small canyons gorges or ravines
Small ravine gulley
Grassy plains without trees savannas or prairies
Earthquakes occur when __________ _________ collide tectonic plates
Boundaries between tectonic plates fault lines
80% of earthquakes and most of the world's volcanoes occur in the Ring of Fire
How many earthquakes occur each hour? about 900
Scientists who study earthquakes seismologists
Scale used to determine the intensity of an earthquake Richter Scale (1 to 10)
Pendulum-type instrument used to measure the intensity of an earthquake seismograph
The worst earthquakes that caused total damage and over 200,000 in lives all occurred in ________, China
Which American city has been struck by an 8.3 earthquake in 1906 and a 6.9 earthquake in 1989? San Francisco, California
Volcanic molten rock magma
Volcanic molten rock that reaches Earth's surface lava
Volcanoes that are constantly erupting active
Volcanoes that erupt at regular intervals intermittent
Volcanoes that are inactive, but may become active again dormant
Volcanoes that are completely inactive for hundreds of years extinct
Most common volcano; steep conical shape made by alternating layers of lava, cinder, & rock fragments; explosive eruption strato volcanoes
Volcano formed from basalt lava flows; very liquid lava flows from a central vent; years of lava flows make a broad, gently sloping mountains; some of the larges volcanoes in the world shield volcanoes
Simplest type of volcano; circular cone formed from small fragments of lava ejected from a single vent; trapped gas blows lava violently into the air, then breaks down into cinders cinder cones
Giant walls of water that rise from ocean floor in response to tectonic shock; 6 to 60 feet high on shore; travel up to 500-600 mph; most frequent in Pacific Ocean tsunami
Usually high sea waves that can be caused by tsunamis, or by strong winds and storms tidal wave
Volcano in A.D. 79 that killed 3,360 Italians Mt. Vesuvius
Volcano in 1980 that killed 60 Americans because they did not heed the warnings of seismologists Mt. St. Helens
___ or above on the Richter Scale is a volcano that causes damage 5
Created by: marybahner
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