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POLS 207 CH.6-8

QuestionAnswer
% of Americans that seek public office less than 1%
democratic elections are considered safety valve
safety valve democratic elections as being a way to release strong opinions w/o violence
referendum allows citizens to approve or reject proposals passed by state legislatures
mandatory legislative referendums 23 states (mostly W----not TX), required to enact or reject constitutional amendments and certain statutory laws proposed by state legislatures----voters have final say
optional legislative referendum all states allow, where legislative bodies reassign decisions they could make themselves to voters-----some are only advice from voters
initiative process that allows citizens to enact a proposal of a new law or constitutional amendment by petition----24 states (W coast & midwest--not TX)
direct democracy of initiative & referendum was adopted in early 20th century
referendums are fairly rare compared to initiatives
roll-off voting only for the top of ticket w presidency and less voting done at the bottom of ticket
straw polls advisory polls from citizens; non-binding (only states and local)
TX has no initiative
initiative has not proven to be a viable form of democracy useable in large democracies
rational activist model active involvement in gathering info & participating; rationally supporting candidates they agree w
most presidential-election years, the greatest voter participation is for governor-----2% higher than turnout for presidential election
lower voting turnout in off year elections (no president elections)
absentee vote voting by mail; one-third less expensive and little fraud; does not increase voting turnout
cumulative elections city council & school board elections; supposed to help the minority; voters can give more than 1 vote to a single candidate, if they want they can give al their votes to a single candidate----not well known voting system
26th amendment 18+ citizens can vote
today, all states req. ppl to be citizens and residents
all states don't allow felons to vote except Vermont and Maine
voting age pop. turnout number of voters/pop. old enough to vote (18+)
voting age pop. turnout is considered not as accurate or useful anymore bc 1. # of non-citizens (legal & illegal) has increased [part of voting age pop. but cannot vote] 2. # of felons not allowed to vote has increased *overstates potential voters & underestimates turnout rates
voting eligible pop. subtracting from VAP the non-citizens and felons who are old enough to vote but legally can't
VET will always be higher than VAT bc its a smaller pool
% VAP excluded in VEP recently TX 16%
largest excluded group of VAP in most states non-citizens
4 factors that account for U.S. decrease in voting turnout 1. lack of party-group linkage 2. registration restrictions 3. no penalty for not voting 4. voter exhaustion
solution to lack of party-linkages abandon winner-take-all system and switch to proportional rep. --->multiple minority parties
rationally voting supporting candidate who most has beliefs similar to yours
ideal voting preparedness 1. be informed and form opinion 2. research candidates 3. chose rationally betw. candidates 4. vote also based on unanticipated issues---who will vote similarly to what you would want in the future
voting registration discourages participation
national voter registration act of 1993 "motor voter law" req. states to have voter registration materials available at state offices w high citizen traffic however they didn't have to be displayed or promoted by workers
exhausted voters americans tired by # of times they must go to polls to vote so lower turnout (school board, city council, county, state, and nation)
convenience-voting procedures mail voting, no excuse needed absentee voting, early voting, election-day registration----does not increase voting and worse performance in the aggregate
recent efforts to discourage voting photo ID (cost $ and travel and effort even tho card is free---affects poor & minorities) + TX intentional discrimination by drawing electoral district maps
nonpartisan elections more than 90% of local elections & many elections of state judges (no party affiliation on ticket----part of machine reform)
avg. turnout in presidential elections approach or exceed 50%
turnout for state elections in off years ~40%
local gov election ~avg. 26% & usually happens during off years and no governor election
greater turnout benefits 1. improved legitimacy---voluntarily obey decisions by fairy elected ppl 2. better correspondence betw. public opinion and public policy
possible causes of turnout when elections are held, issue being contested
turnout is less related to competition betw, parties
turnout is more related to demographics (income, race, ), high school completion, and voter registration
George Washington warned against factions (political parties)
1st PP federalists---organize to ratify constitution; after didn't want to stoop to win votes became irrelevant
legislative organization PP organize within legislative body to pass laws----always easier to DEFEAT BILLS THAN PASS THEM
after election, first task of PP is to manage the efforts of their members in the legislature
electoral organization PP activities regarding appealing to voters in order to win office
jefferson republicans purpose was to resist central gov idea of federalists; Anti-Federalists; unorganized before loss; 2nd U.S. PP bur 1st to organize to win elections & in halls of gov. (prototype of modern PP)---modern D PP
civil war republican north & democratic south
machine parties typically called themselves D part (no tie w D South party)---local
nixon's southern strategy R occupy white house---Southern D become R
causes of current hyper-partisanship 1. max. of party power control of election districts w GERRYMANDERING 2. inc. partisan electronic & broadcast media 3. reduction of bipartisan cooperation & centralization of power in congress 4. primaries
gerrymandering give substantial advantage to majority; protect incumbents;
new media before: neutral print & broadcast news now: biased news (especially C)
core voters hyper-partisanship; reinforce preexisting beliefs w biased media
why we only have 2 major PP less divisive as opposed to several major PP; good fortune: dealing w 1 decisive issue at a time; institutional factors: winner-takes-all (single-member elected); primaries: 3rd parties don't usually have primaries (have to petition to nominate)
why we only have 2 major PP pt.2 party ID: runs in fam. & 3rd party does not (would have to turn as adults); settlement from England: english heritage---reduced catholic influence
decrease leaning D
increasing leaning R
but more lean _____ vs less lean _____ D & R
states regulations have weakened party control
how have states weakened party control 1. req. primaries:
5 state laws that regulate PP 1. define membership (register D or R) 2. define formal party org. (chairman & committee) 3. allow or deny access to state election ballot based on support 4. provide procedure for nominating candidates & primaries 5. restricting/providing $
legislative caucuses constituents have little say, PP legislative elected leaders pick the nominee
party conventions replaced legislative caucuses; gave more power to party members; criticized for being closed to public & decisions still being made behind closed doors
primary election ultimate reform; public picks nominee
TX primary open primary
2 key dimensions that define primary election systems 1. ballot form: 3 states (all candidates for all parties listed); 46 states (list only the candidate for one party) 2.
two-round election Louisiana; candidate who win majority in 1st round win offices---when theres no majority, the top 2 finishers run against each other in a second round ( possible to have top 2 from same party)
top two system washington & california; purpose to choose candidates to contest for general election (can be from same party)
direct primary system 47 other states; 2 choices: whether choice of party ballot is made before or during primary & whether it will be open or closed
high VEP primary election turnout in 2008 & 2016 presidential election (obama vs clinton & trump vs clinton)
open primary 22 states: choice of party ballot is private and choice is made at primary---receive party ballots from both parties and choose which one to vote on
closed primary 11 states: registration by PP is in advance and info is public; commitment at registration is binding; only those who register & choose a party can vote in primary
semi-closed primary 10 states; registered must vote for what they chose but unaffiliated have a choice
primary election candidates must win top two elections are held when no candidate receives req plurality or majority
primary election candidates must win majority in 11 states (mostly Southern states)
general election turnout > primary election turnout
primary election voters are in smaller numbers & more extreme in their views
little evidence that voting for the opposition helps one's party
incumbents more likely to be defeated by challenger of same party during primary than opposition party during general
responsible party system in Britain but not U.S (low turnout--no vote = no consequence); clear stands, select candidates that support them, educate ppl on positions, remove those that don't support, org. in gov. to pass laws on those stands
PP strength stronger in the past (before WW2) & weaker when compared to today
new-style politics media-based;negative ads (swift boat); branding; associating opponent candidate with a famous unpopular person for opposition
swift boating turning candidate's strength to a weakness; john kerry---war hero but was criticized and questioned on whether he truly was
bipartisan campaign reform act 2002; candidates req. to say their name in the ad; feel good ad = start; negative ad = end
straight ticket voting can vote for one PP for all offices; has declined in ability only 8 states have this option (incl. TX) bc less commitment to PP than in the past
interparty competition is at a low point
southern states have lower turnout than northern states
r.ship between interparty competition and turnout is spurious
interparty competition only increased when southern democrats changed to republicans
general election turnout is not strongly related to partisan election results (house & senate) or state/local policies (welfare, tax burden, revenue, expenditure, etc.)
little evidence suggests that competition influences policies
inter party competition (TURNOUT) and accurate R rep. in House 0.56; more voters of a PP means more officials of that PP elected
inter party competition (TURNOUT) and % of VAP registered to vote 0.41; more voters registered means more voting turnout
local gov. competition is decreasing
positively related turnout w registration rate and and more accurate rep. of partisan preferences in House members
republican controlled related to lower PC state & local debt, tax burden, medicaid expenses paid, edu. spending per child + higher incarceration rates & rates of new prisoners
party control more strongly related to state & local policies
turnout and interparty competition are not related to state & local policies
turnout of general is not related to interparty competition or policies
interparty competition is not related to policies
interests groups seek to influence public policy not run for office; don't need to be visible and public like PP
PP active during elections
interest groups active in between elections to influence public policy
lobbying will accomplish not always sympathy but will get 1. access 2. recognition
citizens united v. federal elections commission 2010: no limit to what interest groups can contribute to campaign & intro of Dark Money
Dark Money political spending meant to influence voters' decision where donor & source are unknown; increasing gaps in understanding how each dollar is spent on campaign
interest groups overrepresent white, wealthy, educated men & businesses
in most states, the most effective interest groups are 1. general business orgs 2. chamber of commerce 3. bankers association 4.manufacturers' groups
interest groups actually oppose rather than support equal rep. since the groups w the most means tend to be the most powerful and influential
efforts to control interest groups 1. bribery is illegal (but in many states candidates can pocket leftover campaign $) 2. registration (membership, budget, officers, chosen bills to speak about--accessible to pub. )
PACs increased in number and influence & arrivals to PP
midwest and northeast have the weakest interest groups
top 3 most influential interest groups 1. general business 2. schoolteachers 3. utility
PP have weakened bc of 1. primaries 2. new-style campaigns (media) finically supported by interest groups
interest groups seem to be ________ & PP seem to be _______ strengthening vs. weakening
interest group effect on public policy comprehensive data says minimal effect; stories & case studies say the opposite
% of americans that see local gov as ______ 63% as favorably
% of americans see state gov as _____ 57% as favorably
% of americans see fed gov as ______ 28% as favorably
% that trust local gov 72%
% that trust state gov 62%
% that trust federal gov 38%
% that local gov finances w own money for activities 68%
% local gov revenue directly from federal gov 4%
% local gov revenue from state gov 27%
services of municipal gov 1. police 2. fire 3. roads 4. sewage
local gov usually sole providers of utilities bc 1. start up costs so expensive so no profit until decades later 2. ppl trust gov to handle necessities than private sector
financial link between local gov and private sector is poorly recognized (sometimes gov will hire out private sector for road construction, etc.)
most complex level of gov local gov
oldest local gov counties
all states except _____________ have counties connecticut
oldest form of municipal gov mayor/council
policy-making by competition law that gets approved by both executive and legislative branches of city gov
mayor/council city gov is the most common
municipal reform movement formed independent school districts & council/manager local gov
town meeting % & mostly in ____ ___________ <4% of municipalities & New England
school districts called independent bc no longer part of city gov
independent school districts are _________ bc decreasing bc they're consolidating
hawaii single statewide school district
school districts w higher tax rates spent _________ per enrolled student less
special districts are increasing
short ballot reform strong mayor/council gov bc they could appoint ppl instead of having to be elected on ballot
at-large election city-wide election; disadvantaged minorities bc they had to win other districts that didnt have minorities
cities that use at-large elections 66%
cities that use district elections 17%
cities that use both at-large and district 17%
larger cities tend to have ______ elections at-large
incorporation when rural areas form new municipalities to provide services that cities do
annex discouraged in other states (but TX does it); large cities take over smaller areas
does a democracy need a constitution? no
what makes a democracy 1. freedom of speech 2. voting 3. elections
the more impact on public policy the less ppl participate
nonparticipant (apart from presidential elections) >60%
vote for elected offices indirect democracy (10-60% depending on election type)
initiative and referendum direct democracy (20-50%)
attend public meetings 3-20% (has increased)
uncertain protesters
run for election less than 1%
________ was how weed was legalized in some states initiative
ACA was a result of ppl in debt (bankrupt) bc of high medical costs
being _______ is more dangerous than being _________ misinformed; uninformed
states w referendum do/have 1. direct democracy 2. ppl vote to remove laws 3. W. states
states w initiative do/have 1. ppl write in 2. W. states mostly 3. direct democracy
participants special
nonparticipants commoners
rational voters will know who they are voting of and leave blank who they don't know
VEP will yield higher turnout than VAP bc basing off a smaller pop.
highest turnout election is for governor in presidential years
second highest turnout election is for president
TX non voting % >50% dont vote
bowling alone (book) how sense of community is eroding; ppl don't have bowling groups anymore
cost of voting seems bigger than actual benefits 1. time consuming (poorer places have less machines = longer lines) 2. having to get info 3. missing work
only voting benefit satisfaction if civic duty & if you don't feel civic duty you wont vote
why do americans vote less today 1. lack of party group linkage 2. registration restrictions [photo ID] (state controlled--have dec. in past yrs.) 3. non-mandatory voting 4. voter exhaustion (have to vote for mult offices)
educated black will vote ______ than educated whites bc ________ more; they can value the right they did not have before
why don't texans vote? 1. political & gender socialization (only me belong in gov.; traditionalistic) 2. gerrymandering to favor incumbents (so why vote?) 3. parties are weak 4. turnout inc. when parties are competitive & org.
voting levels in texas are below national level
when there is a strong single party voter turnout is low bc there is no competition so you don't vote for your candidate bc you already know they will lose or you don't vote bc you already know they will win
best predictor for turnout education
factors associated w turnout 1. SES 2. interparty competition 3. tradition/culture 4. legal reqs. 5. election issues
Asian americans aren't _____ _______ even tho they are _____ _______ so they don't have a ______ turnout politically socialized; most educated; high
poll tax is now illegal
registration barriers are acceptable as long as states don't do a due burden on ppl
civil liberties = BOR (RIGHTS)
grandfather clause voting discriination; if your grandfather didnt vote you can't either
15th amendment minorities can vote; but technically not needed bc all CITIZENS can vote
croatians wont support wars anymore bc understand it is the elite who lead them to it w lies and nationalism
PP constituent function select candidates; formal process governed by state & fed law; support candidate primarily after primary
PP information function develop a program & educate public on it; set beliefs nearly comprehensive; policy goals & programs for gov.
PP government function winner organizes gov.; legislature caucus & get committee assignments by party; governor appoints supporters by party; judges tend vote together
PP are active during elections
interest groups: constituent function dont select candidate, only support; support during primaries; can & do support both contestants for same office (PP doesn't matter); support after election common in TX
interest groups: information function beliefs not necessarily comprehensive in scope; limited policy preferences; primary target is group members rather than whole public
interest groups: gov. function do not organize government; provide info & organize for specific policy goals
interest groups are active in between elections
civil war north was anti-slavery & republican; south was pro-slavery & democratic (N ppl moved S during reconstruction & were elected by A.A. so republican south)
realignment democrats start changing w New Deal; A.A. still loyal to republican party bc New Deal did not benefit them
unequal application New Deal did not benefit blacks since most were domestic and farmhand workers (no social security) so they stayed loyal to republican party
radican reconsrtuctionists wanted to punish S by not allowing ex-confederates to vote
brown vs BOE 1955: "separate but equal" is UNFAIR
NAACP used legal means to get rights
civil rights on moral epiphany
JFK bailing MLK Jr out of jail & MLK Sr. talking to black ppl about it caused the 1st time blacks voted largely democratic party----realignment
JFK in dallas 1964 to gather support for CRA among southern democrats
asian americans in general tend to be democratic
women more likely to be democratic
women have made the highest advancement in society
U.S. only developed country w no maternity paid leave
previously discriminated are most likely democrats (social justice)
military supporting & anti-communism more likely republican (cubans bc they were previously under communism)
vietnamese are considered republican bc anti-communism
vietnamese-chinese are considered democratic bc they were discriminated against by the Vietnamese when they lived with them
jews are mostly democrats
hyperpartisanship caused by 1. PP control of election districts the gerrymandering 2. inc. of partisan media & broadcast 3. dec. bipartisan co-op & centralization of power in Cong. 4. primary elections 5. lack of local competition
there are more ____ than _____ in the country democrats; republicans
more _____ are in control bc _____ have _____ __________ & ______________ occurs republicans; democrats have low turnout & gerrymandering happens in favor of republicans
democrats have _______ and republicans have _________ decreased; increased
why only 2 major PP 1. dualism (pro or anti something) 2. winner-take-all 3. primary elections 4. PP ID 5. english heritage
divergev's law if representative system is proportional you will end up with multiple PP but if not you will end up with 2 PP
primary election systems 1. closed primary (have to be registered under PP) 2. open primary 3. semi-closed (rational voting; not always straight ticket) 4. top 2 (can be from same PP)
TX has an ______primary open
primary voting is ________ when no incumbent is running bc _________ higher bc when incumbent is running they are already the nominee so low turnout
what matters more in determining turnout region (N = high turnout; S = low turnout)
interparty competition in TX very low bc one-party state; voting pop. matches gov. rep. (accurate rep.)
republican control & tax burden correlation r = -0.31; tax decreases as more republicans are in power
republican control & long term debt correlation r = -0.64; long term debt decreases as republican power expands
republican control & education spending per child correlation r = -0.47; less educational spending per child as republicans gain control
republican control & medicaid paid by state & local gov correlation r = -0.31; less medicaid is paid by state & local gov as more republicans are in control
prisoners per 100,000 & republican control correlation r = 0.49; more prisoners per 100,000 as more republican control gov
republican control & new prisoners per 100,000 correlation r = 0.30; more prisoners as republicans gain control
TX is a strong ________ state enforcement (big rate of prisoners per 100,000 & new prisoners------bc republican)
there is not a decline in party affiliation but a decline in ppl labelling themselves as strong partisans
does the U.S have a responsible party system? no 1. PP can't completely control nominations, campaign financing, or members' adherence to party platform 2. no clear policy consequences
assets of interest groups 1. large #s 2. wealth 3. status
activities of interest groups 1. electioneering: get members to vote, elect friends, defeat enemies 2. lobbying: sharing info & talking to gov. 3. propagandizing public for support
clinton brady bill wanted to illegalize assault rifles so NRA stopped financing the people that voted for the bill to pass
PACs can _________ for candidates but not ____________ with them advertise; coordinate
PACs are created by individuals
TX is in the ___ ___ for the most _______________ top 3; lobbyists rep. E, insurance, bank, real estate, and healthcare industry
interests groups send money_________ legislators entertaining (w parties, award ceremonies, lunches, etc.)
________ ________ is the best way to access legislators contributing money
total local gov 90,000
total counties 3,000 (constant)
municipalities-cities 19,000 (slight INCREASE & constant)
townships 17,000 (E. coast ~CONSTANT)
school districts 15,000 (has DECREASED even tho pop has decreased bc school districts CONSOLIDATE)
special districts 37,000 (INCREASED); hospitals, higher education institutions
pop. & local gov correlation r = 0.57; TX UPPER RIGHT (bc large pop.-----more gov than predicted [ironic bc want small gov]---opposite for CA [also ironic]
local gov own source revenue 1. property tax 2. charges & misc. 3. utility revenue 4. sales tax 5. insurance tax
local gov (counties, cities, school districts, special districts) expenditures 1. K12 education 2. environment & housing 3. public safety 4. transportation 5. utilities 6. hospitals
county government oldest form of gov; enforce state laws; keep state records; collect taxes; conduct state elections
TX commmission court legislative body not criminal court elected by precinct
TX voters vote for judge (presides over commission court), sheriff, county clerk, attorney, treasurer
TX voters voter for _______ and _________ depending on precinct justice of the peace & constable
TX commission court appoints multiple road crews (inefficient & expensive)
cooperatives when road crews share materials expenses decrease, but only ~10% of counties do this
precincts are divided up by ________ & used to be divided up by ______ pop.; road mileage
county revenue 1. >50% property tax 2. grants (state & fed---intergovermental) 3. fines (current charges) 4. licenses and fees (current charges)
county budget 1. 50% law enforcement 2. 10-30% roads 3. 10% health & welfare
county expenditures 1. health & welfare 2. public safety 3. general gov & other 4. interest 5. transp. 6. housing
municipal gov: council/manager 50%
municipal gov: council/mayor 41%
municipal gov: town meeting 6%
municipal gov: commission 3%
council manager voters ---->(elect) council---->(hire) city manager
council/manager becomes _______ when city grows inefficient
weak mayor/council mayor has same power as a council person
strong mayor/council appointment & removal powers; more formal powers
council/mayor voters (elect)---->council + mayor + other officials ----> mayor (appoints)--->other officials (ex. city manager---houston)
town meeting voters--->elected officials & town meeting----->hire ppl for public policy
commission galveston (failed); voters--->commission--->hire/assign ppl
problem commission each commissioner gets to rotate assignment & never complete it = inefficient
council/manager preferable for 25,000-250,000 ppl
council/mayor larger cities
city gov revenue 1. utilities 2. current charges 3. property tax 4. grants (state & fed---intergov.)
city gov expediture 1. utilities 2. public safety (police, etc.) 3. transp. 4. housing, parks, environ. 5. interest (payment on loans--NRG stadium)
median fam. income & city taxes PC r = 0.40; more salary means higher taxes
A.A pop. and council r = 0.76; more black ppl in pop. means more black ppl in council
toll roads special districts
why do we have special districts? inadequacy of est. gov.; too expensive, too big of a problem for one city or county to take care of
Created by: daisy98