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Ch. 13

Charlemagne King of the Franks from 768 to 814; he united much of France, Germany, and northern Italy in one Frankish empire; crowned Emperor of the Roman people in 800.
Papal States a region in central Italy that was under control of The Pope.
counts officials
navigation planning the course across the sea
sagas long Icelandic stories about great heroes and events
Leif Eirksson Norwegian explorer; he led a group of Vikings to North America and settled on the eastern shore of modern-day Canada.
knights highly skilled soldiers who fought on horseback
fief the land given to a knight for his service
vassal Anyone who accepted a fief
feudal system A system of exchanging land
fealty loyalty
manorial system an economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors
serfs workers who were legally tied to the manor on which they worked
Alfred the Great King of Wessex from 871 to 899; he defeated Danish invaders and united Anglo-Saxon England under his control. He compiled a code of laws and promoted learning.
William the Conqueror King of England from 1060 to 1087; he was a powerful French noble who conquered England and brought feudalism to England
Domesday Book a book that William used to create a central tax system for England
Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen of France and England; she was one of the most powerful women in Europe during the Middle Ages
Magna Carta A document that contained many provisions that restricted the king's power
Parliament the governing body that still makes England's laws today
Hugh Capet King of France from 987 to 996; elected by Frankish nobles to succeed King Louis V
Otto the Great King of Germany 936-973 and Holy Roman Emperor 962-973
Reconquista reconquest; Christian states embarked on a series of campaigns to retake the Iberian Peninsula
piety a person's level of devotion to his or her religion
pontificate papal term in office
Pope Gregory VII Roman catholic pope
Henry IV King of Germany from 1056 to 1106 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1056 to 1106; he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII over bishop appointments; he acknowledged the pope's authority and was readmitted to the church.
Created by: matthewwells