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CNS infections

IllnessSymptomsLabsAgents: ViralAgents: BacterialAgents: Parasitic
Allergic encephalitis Rare complication of influenza, measles, mumps, immunization against these viruses
Reye's syndrome Kids: encephalopathy + liver degeneration; vomiting, lethargy, confusion, seizures, coma, death Aspirin given to reduce fever implicated
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Acute rapidly progressing paralysis in limb, resp muscles, face, recovery w/in weeks usually Autoimmune response (cross-reactive myelin antibodies) to influenze, EBV, CMV, vaccines
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) Inflammatory lesions in brain --> fatal Measles complication several years post-infxn
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Blindness, dementia, coma, death w/in 6 mo; primarily in immunocompromised PTs Reactivation of JC (papova)virus --> infects oligodendrocytes + astrocytes
African Sleeping Sickness Chancre at site of bite, waves of fever, lymphadenopathy (Winterbottom's sign), cerebral edema, encephalopathy, mental deterioration, drowsiness, seizures, tremor, cachexia, coma, death Thin smears blood/lymph aspirate w/Giemsa to ID Trypanosomas gambiense + rhodesiense
Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis Severe meningitis: brain necrosis + hemorrhage via olfactory nerve, coma, death ~6 days (N.) or more slowly developing (A.) CSF aspirate, wet mount: ID amoebae Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba castellani
Cysticercosis Pronounced cellular reaction to cysticerci in brain: epileptic seizures, death, vision problems Eggs + proglottids in stool, X-ray/CT for CNS involvement, eye mass Taenia solium
Meningitis Headache, fever, neck stiffness, vomiting, photophobia, altered mental status CSF: Normal protein + glucose; WBC normal-elevated Mumps virus, Enteroviruses (poliovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus), Herpesviruses (esp HSV-2, HCMV) N. meningitidis (esp w. altered mental status), H. influenzae, S. pneumonia, Listeria >50, (E. coli, TB, S. aureus, Strep agalactiae, P. aeruginosa)
Encephalitis Headache, fever, neck stiffness, vomiting, photophobia; may progress to lethargy, confusion, paralysis, seizure, coma, death Rabies virus, Arboviruses (arthropod-borne), Measles virus, HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV, HIV
Toxoplasmosis Usually asymptomatic, fever, lymphadenopathy; Serious ds in newborns: still birth, mental retardation, calcification of brain tissue, hydrocephalus, death. Immunocompromised: fulminant encephalitis, retinochoroiditis, death Serology: rise in AB titer over time Toxoplasma gondii
Created by: eemolee27