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Middle Ages

Social Studies

True or False: Before the Roman Empire's collapse, Christianity spread along with the empire. True.
True or False: Much like Islam, Christianity politically unified its lands. False, tribal kingdoms formed in western Europe. However, Christianity did serve as a source of order and organization that political leaders did not offer.
What years were known as the Middle Ages/Medieval Times and why? 500-1500 CE, they were between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance.
Why were the first five hundred years of the Middle Ages characterized as the Dark Ages? The characteristics of civilization, such as reliable surpluses, distinct social classes, and long distance trade, that were held during the Roman Empire and the Renaissance were lost during the Dark Ages.
True or False: Most of the people living during the Dark Ages were pastoral nomads or farmers. True.
True or False: During the Dark Ages, political leaders were tribal chieftains. True.
The literacy rate _______________ during the Dark Ages. Decreased.
Long distance trade ________________ during the Dark Ages, and during the High Middle Ages, it increased. Decreased, increased.
There were ____________ cities during the Dark Ages, and during the High Middle Ages, the amount of cities ___________________. Few (they were mainly villages and small towns), increased.
When did the recovery from the Dark Ages accelerate the most? After 1200 CE, although the Dark Ages officially ended in 1000.
The emergence of the __________ class during the High Middle Ages made social classes more _______________. Middle, distinct.
Why did the Dark Ages begin? The fall of the Roman Empire led to the fall of Western Europe's political, social, and military order that once came from them.
Describe Christianity's attempt to act as a "glue" during the fall of the Roman Empire and the Dark Ages. Christianity was developed too late to preserve the Roman Empire. However, it served as a glue for the people of the Dark Ages, which united them, since centralized government never could.
Describe the change in Roman rule between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Dark Ages. The concept of rule by law was replaced with ties based on loyalties, which made it difficult for a centralized government to form.
Feudalism. The political structure where knights were bound to their chief with oaths of loyalty.
Manorialism. The economic system in which fiefs were tied to their land to supply labor to their lords, fiefs settled on manors due to the desperation and uncertainty of the Dark Ages, and the manors offered them food and protection.
Group from France that attempted to unite western Europe under one king. Franks.
Clovis. First king of the Franks, destroyed any lasting power of the Roman Empire, converted to Christianity, which gave him approval from the Pope in Rome.
Charles Martel. Conquered western Europe from Clovis, "Charles the Hammer", member of the Carolingian family.
Charlemagne. Grandson of Charles Martel, temporarily unified western Europe, protected subjects from vikings, missi dominici, moved around the kingdom to make his presence felt.
Vikings. Raiders from Scandinavia that tried to attack western Europe.
Missi Dominici. Keeping check on the counts' power to make sure they don't abuse it.
Counts. Powerful land owners that administered justice and raised armies.
Why was maintaining the subjects' loyalty to the central government so significant for Charlemagne? Many of the subjects owed loyalty to another lord, and Charlemagne had to compete with the subjects' loyalty to the Pope.
What happened on December 25th 800 CE and what did this symbolize? Charlemagne was crowned emperor by the Pope. This move was unnecessary, considering Charlemagne already had the authority of an emperor. The Pope crowning Charlemagne shows the power religion had over the central government.
What happened to Charlemagne's Empire after his death? His son, Louis the Pious, divided the empire for his three sons, who fought one another over territory. Their disputes were settled with the Treaty of Verdun, and his empire eventually fell apart.
Why were the manors self-sufficient? There was little long distance trade, so the manors could not rely on outside sources .
Why was bartering more suitable for the Dark Ages than the traditional currencies? There was little trade, so no one needed money to trade with. Bartering involved trading instead.
Describe the Agricultural Revolution of the High Middle Ages. The iron plow, windmill, harness, and three fields system were created, farms became more productive, increase in population.
Describe the significance of the monks' work at the monasteries. Monks kept education relevant during the Dark Ages. They operated schools and copied books from past civilizations. Many of the books were destroyed by the Germanic invasions, but the monks kept them and produced more of the remaining.
What sparked the end of the Dark Ages? Western Europe was receiving inventions and ideas from Asia and eastern Europe through cultural diffusion, less viking attacks, agriculture and population increased, Crusades.
What made the Pope more powerful than the centralized government? The Canon Law prevented a government from fully developing, the Pope had the power of excommunication and interdict.
What was the Magna Carta and how did it limit the government? It was a document King John of England was forced to sign due to riots, and it gave power to the nobles.
What was the Parliament and how did it limit the government? The gave the nobles and clergy a voice in policy making in England and France, the English one was very strong while the French one was not.
Hundred Years' War. William of Normandy invaded England and started a territorial dispute.
What caused the Crusades? Pope Urban II wanted the Christians of the Roman Empire to take back Jerusalem, their holy land, from the Muslims.
What was the short term effect of the Crusades? The Crusaders gained back Jerusalem.
Why were the Crusades seen as a failure? The Crusaders eventually lost Jerusalem to Saladin and his army.
Why were the Crusades seen as a success? They ended the Dark Ages, as the Crusaders saw the wonders of the Middle East and brought the ideas back to Europe, as they were no longer content with their isolation.
Why did the Crusaders join? Religious motivation of retrieving the holy land, forgiveness of sins, serfs wanted to leave their manor, glory.
How did the Crusades benefit Venice and Genoa? They were located by the Mediterranean Sea, and they offered to help the Crusaders travel to the Middle East. They eventually helped the two empires trade and became wealthy.
Hanseatic League. Group for merchants in northern Europe that helped make trade reliable source to exchange goods.
What ended feudalism? Crusades and the Black Plague because so many people died and people were willing to pay workers more.
What did the growth of trade mean for social classes? A new middle class, merchants, had formed.
What group of people was mostly bankers and why? The Jews were bankers because the Catholic Church was against usury, the charging of interest on loaned money.
How did the Christians treat the Jews? They discriminated against them, made them live in ghettos, limited their job options, and attacked them. (Pogroms)
What happened to women's rights during the High Middle Ages? They decreased. They could not be in positions of authority or take part in guilds.
Development of universities. Charlemagne opened a learning facility for the clergy. Eventually Italy opened official universities after being inspired by the Crusades.
Scholasticism. The combination of Christian teaching and Greek philosophy.
What were the vernacular languages and how did they affect the literacy rate? Vernacular languages are the languages of everyday people. When books became written in the vernacular languages, more people became literate, as they no longer had to learn an entire new language in order to read.
What geographical advantage did Constantinople have? It was located on the Bosporus, which connected the Aegean Sea to the Black Sea. This helped them with trading and protected them from invaders.
What was the Byzantine Empire's economic system? A bureaucracy with peasants that farmed for a living, silk manufacturing and trade.
What happened to women's rights in the Byzantine Empire? They decreased from the fall of the Roman Empire, women could not socialize with men outside of their family and were confined to their home.
What was education like in the Byzantine Empire? Everyone spoke Greek, almost all were literate, schools of higher learning were available, girls and boys received an education.
How did the Byzantine Empire spread Eastern Orthodoxy? They converted Russia, Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece to Eastern Orthodoxy, they developed the Cyrillic Alphabet for the Russians so they could read the Bible, fought with Roman Catholic Church for converts.
Describe the towns of western Europe that occurred after feudalism. Towns began to develop that consisted of former serfs who now worked independently. The king made money off of the towns since the loyalty ties to lords were cut off. Townspeople had guilds and apprentices. Women became more independent.
What were the effects of the plague? Killed a third of Europeans, Jews were blamed, end of feudalism, Roman Catholic Church lost power.
What started the Black Plague? It began to China and spread to eastern Europe through rats on the trading boats and then western Europe.
Compare Romanesque and Gothic architecture. Romanesque was much more simple and mysterious and had small windows, while Gothic was more extravagant with stain glassed windows, tall buildings, and flying buttresses.
How was Constantine's rule over eastern Europe different than those of the west? Constantine was the leader of religion and the state, and could declare actions heretical, while the west separated the two.
Why was Russia's conversion to Eastern Orthodoxy a marker event? After the Byzantine Empire fell, Russia continued to spread Eastern Orthodoxy.
Justinian was an ___________________, which meant he had absolute power. Autocrat.
How did Justinian make Constantinople a dazzling city? He built museums, roads, parks, schools, aqueducts, forum, Hagia Sophia, hippodrome.
Justinian's Code. It collected, revised, and organized the laws of Rome, influences law today.
Downfall of the Byzantine Empire. Had emperors with little military experience, attacked by the 4th Crusade, lost land after Justinian, peasants were depended on, sacked by Ottoman Turks, relied on Italian cities.
What was the goal of the Code of Chivalry? They were the rules for the knights that presented their integrity and honor.
Nika riots. Justinian killed peasants in the hippodrome after they rioted.
Created by: emarciante9
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