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Biochemistry

QuestionAnswer
RNA contains ___ sugar Ribose
___ stores genetic information essential for the product of proteins DNA
Maltose is made by a condensation reaction of ___ and ___ Glucose, glucose
Lactose is made of ___ and ___. Glucose, galactose
___ do not dissolve in water. Lipids
___ and ___ are made of nucleotides. DNA, RNA
___ speed up a chemical reaction without being used up. Enzymes
Examples of ___ include DNA and RNA. Nucleic Acids
___ have examples the include-Fatty Acids, Steroids, Waxes, Triglycerides, and Phospholipids. Lipids
___ combine together to make ___ using peptide bonds. Amino Acids, proteins
___ are made of carboxylic Acids and an amine. Amino Acids
___ and ___ make the disaccharide, Sucrose Glucose, fructose
Examples of ___ include enzymes. Proteins
___ are called "fats" when solid and "oil" when liquid at room temperature. Triacylglycerols
___ is stored in the form of glycogen (animal) and starch (plants). Glucose
Glucose, starch, and glycogen are examples of ___. Carbohydrates
The building blocks of nucleotides are a five-carbon, a phosphoric unit, and a ___. Cyclic Amine
Starches are an example of a Carbohydrate
Examples of ___ include polysaccharides, monosaccharides, and disaccharides. Carbohydrate
A ___ is composed of three cyclohexane rings and one cyclopentane ring. Steroid
The billions of complex ___ that collectively compose a living cell are classifies into 4 ___ groups Biomolecules, macromolecule
The 4 macromolecule group ___, ___, ___, and ___. Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates are... *Produced by plants during photosynthesis *a major source of energy *composed of the elements C, H, and O,
Carbohydrates are also called ___, which means "___", Saccharides, sugar
The three types of carbohydrates are ___, ___, and ___. * monosaccharides * disaccharides * polysaccharides
___ are the simplest form of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides
___ consist of 2 monosaccharides. Disaccharides
___ contain many monosaccharides. Polysaccharides
4 examples of monosaccharides are ___, ___, ___, and ___. * glucose * fructose * galactose * cyclic structures
___ is the sweetest carbohydrate. Fructose
___ is found in fruit juices and honey Fructose
Your body converts fructose to ___. Glucose
___ is known as blood sugar, grape sugar, and dextrose. Glucose
___ is the monosaccharide in polymers of starch, cellulose, and glycogen. Glucose
___ is not found in nature, but is obtained from the disaccharide lactose. Galactose
___ is the prevalent form of monosaccharides with 5 or 6 carbon atoms. Cyclic structures
Molecules within glucose can react and change the shape of the molecule to form a ___ ring structure. Pyranose
___ , ___ , and ___ are nutritionally important monosaccharide hexoses. Glucose, galactose, trutose
Examples of a disaccharide are ___, ___, and ___. * milk * sugar * lactose
How many monosaccharides does a disaccharide consist of 2 monosaccharides
Glucosyl+glucose = Maltose
Glucose+ galactosyl Lactose
Glucosyl + fructose= Sucrose
Glucosyl+glycoside= Trehalose
Isomaitose is known as a nutritionally important ___. Disaccharide
___ is found in milk and in milk products. (Galactosyl&glucose) Lactose
___ can be obtained from the hydrolysis of starch. (Glucosyl & glucose) Maltose
___ is obtained from sugar cane and sugar beets. (Glucosyl & fructose) Sucrose
___ is a polymer of glucose molecules and consists of continuous chains/branched chain polymers. Starches
The polysaccharide, ___, stores glucose in muscles and while it is similar to plant starch, it is more highly branched. Gylcogen
___ is a polysaccharide of glucose units in unbraced chains. Humans cannot break the bonds so we cannot eat it. Cellulose
Contains fatty acid or a steroid nucleons. It is soluble in organic solvents, but not in water Lipids
___ is a long chain of carboxylic Acids and is insoluble in water Saturated/ unsaturated fatty acids
___ fatty acids have all single C-C bonds. Saturated
___ fatty acids have one or more double C=C bonds. Unsaturated
Fats and oils are also know as ___. Triacylglycerol
___ and ___ are the esters of glycerol and are formed when the hydroxyl groups of glycerol react w/ the carboxyl groups of fatty acids. Fats, oils
___ contains saturated fatty acids, is solid at room temp, and is prevalent in meats, whole milk, butter, and cheese. Fats
___ contains unsaturated fatty acids, is liquid at room temp, and is prevalent in plants like olive and safflower. Oils
___ is composed of glycerol, 2 fatty acids, phosphate, and an aminol alcohol * It is the most abundant lipids in cell membranes Glycerophospholipids
Located in the ___ bilayer, contains a hydrophilic head and hydrophilic tail. Phospholipid
___ is made of 3 cyclohexane rings and 1 cyclopentane ring. Many ___ have hormonal effects Steroids
___ contain a carboxylic acid group and amino group on the alpha (a) carbon. Each contain a different side group (R). Amino acids
Examples of ___ are starches in plants, glycogen, and cellulose Polysaccharides
This type of ___ forms between the carboxyl group of one amino Acids and the amino group of the next amino acid. Peptide bond
___ known as the disruption of bonds in the secondary (2nd), tertiary (3rd), and quaternary(4th) protein structures. Denaturation
___, ___, and ___ are the only nutrients that contribute calories to food. Fats, carbohydrates, proteins
___ carry genetic info and are made of nucleotides (phosphoric acid unit, 5 C sugar, and cyclic amine (base) Nucleic acids
Nucleic acids together by attaching the phosphate group of one to the sugar of another by a ___. Phosphate ester bond
___ and ___ are nucleic acids DNA, RNA
The structure of ___ consists of deoxyribonucleic acid (phosphoric acid unit), deoxyribose (5 carbon sugar), and one of 4 amine bases. DNA
The 4 amine bases for DNA are ___, ___, ___, and ___. Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
2 DNA strands wound together form a ___. Double helix
1 gram of fat = ___ calories 9
1 gram of carbohydrate= ___ calories 4
1 gram of protein= ___ calories 4
How to find the total calories of grams (Grams of fat)(calories/gram)
How to find the total calories of carbs (Grams of carbs)(calories/gram)
How to find the total calories of protein (Grams of protein)(calories/gram)
Created by: KaylaMares