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Foundations of Rome

QuestionAnswer
Republic a political system in which the citizens of a region elect representatives to fun the government
Patricians a class of powerful landowners in ancient Rome who controlled the government and society
Plebeians farmers or workers, who made up a large part of the population in Ancient Rome
Veto ban
Forum the assembly place of an ancient Roman city
Constitution a political structure
Senate a body of legislators
Consuls the chief executives elected to run the government in ancient Rome
Dictator a political leader holding unlimited power
Gracchi Roman statesman; they tried to help ex-soldiers in Rome by redistributing public land to small farmers. The Roman elite reacted violently to these actions and led mobs that killed the brothers
Gaius Marius Roman general and politician; he eliminated property restrictions for acceptance into the army and began to accept anyone who wished to join the Roman army. He made armies into private forces that became devoted to their generals
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Roman general and politician; he became consul in 88 BC, led a civil war against Marius and his followers, emerged victorious, and became dictator
Julius Caesar Roman general and one of the greatest military leaders in history; he conquered most of Gaul and was named dictator for his life in Rome. He was later murdered by a group of senators who opposed his enlarged powers
Triumvirate a ruling body of three members
Augustus First emperor of Rome; he established the second Triumvirate with Mark Antony and Lepidus. He created the imperial system of administration, established new coinages, and encouraged trade
Pax Romana a period of peace in Roman Empire lasting from the beginning of Augustus's reign until the death of Marcus Aurelius
Villa a home in the country
Circuses the site of chariot races in ancient Rome
Paterfamilias the family father
Augurs priests in ancient Rome who specialized in interpretation of the natural phenomena sent by the gods
Galen Greek physicians; he wrote several volumes that summarized all the medical knowledge of his day
Ptolemy One of Alexander the Great's generals, he founded a dynasty that ruled Egypt for nearly 300 years
Aqueducts man made channels used to transport water; ancient Romans built impressive aqueducts
Latin the language of ancient Rome
Civil Law a form of law based on written code of laws
Christianity a religion based on the teaching of Jesus of Nazareth
Messiah in Judaism, a savior sent by the god
Jesus of Nazareth First-Century Jewish teacher and prophet; he founded Christianity and taught about kindness and love of god. His teaching spread through the Roman Empire and, eventually the rest of the world
Disciples followers of jesus
Apostles the 12 chosen disciples of Jesus; they were the first Christian missionaries
Martyrs people put to death for their beliefs
Paul Apostle to the Gentiles; he worked to spread Jesus' teachings and wrote letters that explained key ideas of Christianity
Eucharist a ceremony of some Christian denominations that commemorates Jesus' last supper with his disciples
Bishop a high-ranking church official who oversees a group of churches in a particular region or city
Popes title given to the heads if the Roman Catholic Church
Inflation increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money
Diocletian Roman emperor from 284 to 305; he divided the Roman Empire into eastern and western halves
Attila King of the Huns from 434 to 453; he invaded parts of the Roman Empire, devastating the Balkan countries and northern Greece when promised tribute was not paid. Plague and famine helped forestall his invasion of Italy
Created by: AdrianJones
 

 



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