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History Unit 4

American Revolution Study Guide

George Washington- He was known as a farmer, United States of America's first president, and the commander in chief of the Second Continental Congress Army.
Alliance- A formal agreement among groups or individuals.
Delegates- Also known as representatives.
Benjamin Franklin- He was from Pennsylvania and he proposed what became known as the Albany Plan of Union.
Parliament- The lawmaking body of the British government, sen an army to the colonies to help fight the French and their Indian allies.
William Pitt- He was a British leader and since he wanted Britain to give the colonists a break, he sent more troops and supplies to the colonies.
King George lll- The king of Britain that tried to end the fighting between the Indians and colonists by making a proclamation. He also gave much trouble to the colonists.
Proclamation- A public announcement.
Proclamation of 1763- King George lll stated that all lands west of the Appalachian Mountains belonged to the Indians. This upset many colonists, so many disobeyed that rule.
Budget- A plan for spending money.
George Greenville- He was also a British leader, but he said that Parliament needed more money to pay off the costs of the war, so he argued that the colonists should pay higher taxes.
Representation- Also known as a voice in Parliament. NO TAXATION WITHOUT __________!!!
Patrick Henry- He told his fellow members of the Virginia House of Burgesses that Parliament did not represent the colonists. He was also accused by treason.
Treason- The act of working against one's own government.
Committees of Correspondence- Members of a committee who would write letters that would be sent to the other colonies, keeping the colonies informed and united in a common cause.
Samuel Adams- He asked leaders in Boston to begin a new Committee of Correspondence, and they agreed. He was a part of the Sons of Liberty.
Imperial policies- The laws and orders issued by the British government.
Boycott- To refuse to buy.
Sons of Liberty- A group of colonists that began the Sons of Liberty to work to stop the Stamp Act. They would capture several British officials who tried to collect taxes and cover them in sticky tar and dumped feathers on them.
Daughters of Liberty- In the Stamp act, members in Rhode Island that began spinning and weaving cloth for sale in place of British cloth. Also, when the British invented the Townshend Act, they asked everyone to stop drinking tea, so the colonists drank tea from local plants.
Repeal- To take back.
Townshend Acts- A tax that the British tax on glass, tea, paint, and paper.
The Boston Massacre- The colonists were calling the British names and insulting them, the British got very angry and decided to throw rocks and snowballs. As the crowd moved forward, the British opened fire. Three colonists were killed on the spot and two other died later.
Crispus Attucks- One of the colonists that were dead was _____. He was an African American sailor from Massachusetts. Many people considered him as the first one killed in the fight for the colonist's freedom.
Paul Revere- He was a Boston silversmith who supported the colonists. He rode his horse and told everyone the British regulars are out to find them. He saved everyone in America and he made us be our own free country.
Documentary sources- An item produced at the time an event takes place, often by a person who experienced the event.
Monopoly- Complete control of a good or service in an area, by either a person or a group.
The Boston Tea Party- The Sons or Liberty dressed up as Mohawk Indians and marched down to Boston Harbor. There, they boarded the ships, broke open 342 boxes of tea, and threw it all overboard.
Coerced- To force.
Blockade- To use warships to prevent other ships from entering or leaving a harbor.
Quarter- To provide or pay for housing.
Coercive Acts- One law closed the port of Boston until the colonists paid for the destroyed tea. To punish the colonists even more, Britain stopped the Massachusetts legislature from making any laws.
Edmund Burke- He said to Parliament," You will force them (to pay taxed goods)? Has seven years' struggle yet been able to force them?" But, Parliament ignored Burke's request for cooperation.
The First Continental Congress- A group of representatives that met in 1774 in Philadelphia to discuss how to respond to Britain. There, they made a petition that said their basic rights as a British citizen. It was sent to the King of Britain.
Congress- A formal meeting or representatives.
Petition- A signed request.
Minutemen- Men in the colonies that were said to be ready to fight at a minute's notice.
John Hancock- One of two leaders of the Sons of Liberty. He was also the president of Congress. He wrote his name on the Declaration of Independence so big that King George lll would't have to use his glasses to read it.
Revolution- A sudden, complete change of government.
John Dickinson- While in the Second Continental Congress, some people called for war against the British, but he tried to persuade the group to avoid fighting. He was chosen to head the committee to write the plan of government.
Commander in Chief- The leader of all military forces.
John Adams- He was a delegate from Massachusetts that fought in the French and Indian War. He also signed the Declaration of Independence. On July 4,1776, he mailed a letter to his wife saying that Independence Day should be celebrated from today on.
The Battle of Bunker Hill- A big effect was that the British learned that the colonists were not easy to beat. Since the king heard about the Battle of Bunker Hill, he sent more troops to crush the colonists.
Earthworks- Walls made of earth and stone.
Olive Branch- An ancient symbol of peace.
The Olive Branch Petition- The colonists made another petition that was sent to the king. The petition asked for peace.
Thomas Paine- He wrote a pamphlet called Common Sense that said that colonists should rule themselves.
Independence- The freedom to govern themselves.
Resolution- A formal group statement.
Declaration- An official statement.
Thomas Jefferson- The main writer of the Declaration of Independence.
Preamble- The first part of a petition.
The Declaration of Independence- The preamble of the petition was about why the Declaration was needed. The next part describes the colonists' main ideas about government. The last part said that all colonists were free. Lastly, he wrote that the colonists were free and independent stat
Grievances- AKA complaints.
Richard Henry Lee- He was an American leader who believed the colonies should become independent from Britain. He said in front of his fellow delegates and said that the 13 colonies are now free. He also called for a revolution.
The Second Continental Congress- A congress when everyone decided the colonist should begin to prepare for war. George Washington was chosen to be the commander in chief.
Articles of Confederation- The country's first plan of government.
Patriots- People in colonies who supported independence.
Loyalists- Those who remained loyal to the king.
Neutral- A group of some colonists that took neither side.
Inflation- An increase in the price of goods.
Profiteering- Charging extra-high prices for their crops or goods.
Women in War- They ran farms, businesses, worked as carpenters, blacksmiths, and shipbuilders. Other raised money for the war and collect clothing for the soldiers. Some wives took their jewelry and melted it to make bullets. Some also took place on the battle field.
Martha Washington- Every winter, she would travel to be with her husband, George.
Deborah Sampson- She dressed as a man and fought, calling herself Robert Shirtliffe. After taking her husbands place on the battle field she got injured badly and the doctors found out her secret.
Mercy Otis Warren- She wrote patriotic poems and stories that often showed women heroes fighting for freedom. Later, she wrote a history of the American Revolution, the first by women.
Abigail Adams- She argued for freedom in letters she wrote to her husband, John. She also offered rooms in her home for children who had been made homeless by the war.
Regiment- A large group of soldiers.
James Armistead- He was a Virginia slave, served as a spy for George Washington. The info that Armistead collected helped win an important battle at Yorktown. After the war, the Virginia government gave him his freedom.
Chief Logan- He chose to fight on the side of the British. In 1774, frontier settlers had killed his family. This caused him to fight against the Americans.
Thayendanega- He was the Mohawk Indian leader who also fought with Britain.
Enlisted- Signed up.
Mercenaries- Hired soldiers.
Campaign- A series of military operations carried out for a certain goal.
The Battle of Saratoga- This battle was a turning point for the colonists. Suddenly it looked as it the Americans might have a chance to win the war.
Benedict Arnold- He led a group of soldiers in a daring attack. Although his leg was wounded badly, his attack succeeded. Early in 1781, he was a former Continental Army officer, began leading British attacks on Virginia towns. He had become a traitor.
Turning point- An event that causes and important change.
The Battle of Valley Forge- A very cold battle. Most of the soldiers almost died. The Americans had only clothing that tore and got destroyed. Many people's shoes were falling apart because they were walking so far.
Marquis de Lafayette- A French leader that volunteered to help the American colonists and George Washington fight for their country's freedom. He spent his own money to buy warm clothes for the soldiers. He had an American heart.
Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben- He was a German soldier who had decided to help the Americans by training them to become a skilled fighting force.
Negotiate- To try to come to an agreement that is acceptable to all the parties involved.
Bernardo de Galvez- He was the governor of Spanish Louisiana, gave guns, food, and money to the Continental Army.
Nathan Hale- He was a spy for Washington on the British. He was captured by the British in a big fire and was found out that he was a spy on them. He got hung and later became known as a hero.
John Paul Jones- An American navy commander. In one famous battle in the North Sea near Britain, the British asked him to surrender. He replied," I have not yet begun to fight." He kept fighting until the British ship gave up.
Mary Ludwig Hayes- She earned the name Molly Pitcher by carrying fresh water to American troops during the Battle of Monmouth. When her husband was wounded, she took place in battle helping load the cannons.
Tadeusz Kosciuszko- He traveled from Poland to work for the Continental Army. He built walls for defense during the Battle of Saratoga, and he helped design plans for a fort at West Point, New York. Without his help, the army's defenses would have been much weaker.
Traitor- Someone who acts against his or her country.
Nathanael Greene- American General who led the Continental Army in the South, told his soldiers not to give up.
Charles Cornwallis- British General that had set up headquarters at Yorktown, Virginia. Yorktown's location made it easy to surround the town. Knowing this, the French and the Americans made a plan to defeat Cornwallis at Yorktown.
The Treaty of Paris- America and Britain sent representatives to Paris to negotiate a peace treaty. The American delegates stated the terms they wanted in the treaty. Britain had to agree to accept American independence and to remove all British soldiers from American lands.
Abolitionist- AKA anitslavery.
Elizabeth Freeman- A slave that sued to be free. When they asked her why she was suing, she answered," I heard that paper (the Declaration) read yesterday that all (people) are born equal." They agreed and she won her freedom.
Abolish- To end.
Territory- Land that belongs to a nation but is not a state and is not represented in the national government.
Ordinance- A set of laws.
Treaty of Greenville- Americans who decided to sign a treaty with the Miami tribe to bring peace. They both agreed and signed. Then, the Americans marched over and defeated the Indians and their homes, just so they could have they land.
Michikinikwa- He became a leader for the American Indians of the Northwest Territory.
Red Jacket- A leader of the Seneca tribe warned the Miami tribe not to sell its land. However, the leaders ignored his advice and signed the Big Tree Treaty, which let the company buy almost all of the Senecas' land.
Created by: Martha8580