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Civil Rights

US History Review from 1877-present day

Reconstruction period after the Civil War in which the government tried to bring southern states back into the Union, with federal assistance to former slaves
Civil Rights Act 1868 passed to protect the rights of newly freed slaves
13th Amendment abolished slavery
14th Amendment granted citizenship to anyone born or naturalized in the US; granted due process of the law and equal protection to all
15th Amendment protects the right of all men to vote, regardless of race or ethnicity
Ku Klux Klan organized in 1866 as a reaction of southern whites to Reconstruction; proposed White Supremacy and anti-immigrant policies; threatened violence to African Americans & white supporters
Lynching hangings carried out by KKK mobs to intimidate African Americans & other minorities
Jim Crow Laws laws passed by southern states to promote segregation of races
Disenfranchisement the prevention of African Americans from voting
Poll Taxes taxes required to vote to prevent African Americans from registering to vote
Literacy Tests tests designed to prevent poor and illiterate African Americans from voting; whites were "grandfathered in"
Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896 Supreme Court ruling that "separate but equal" facilities for whites and blacks was constitutional; used to justify Jim Crow segregation laws
League of United Latin American Citizens LULAC was an advocacy group that fought in court to ensure Hispanics were allowed to attend schools and serve on juries
FDR Executive Order 8802 FDR ordered the federal govt. not to discriminate in the hiring of minorities after planned marches by A. Philip Randolph
Truman Executive Order 9981 President Harry Truman ordered the armed forces be desegregated following their double V campaign in WWII
Brown vs. Board of Education 1954 Supreme Court case that overturned segregation in schools from Plessy vs. Ferguson ruling
Roy Benavidez 1st Latino Congressional of Honor winner
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-56 boycott led by Martin Luther King following the protest of Rosa Parks against Alabama bus policies
Southern Manifesto 1956 document by southern congressmen expressing opposition to racial integration of public places
Little Rock 9 in 1957, 9 African Americans who were prevented from attending Arkansas school; President Eisenhower sent in federal troops to protect them and force desegregation
civil disobedience practice of non-violent resistance used by Martin Luther King Jr., such as boycotts, sit-ins, and marches
Freedom Rides interracial groups who rode buses into the south to force desegregation on public transportation; they risked death
George Wallace Alabama governor who opposed desegregation of schools
affirmative action programs by the govt. to increase minority representation in colleges and businesses
California vs. Bakke Supreme Court approved affirmative action, but not racial quotas
Civil Rights Act 1964 law that prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, or ethnicity in hotels, restaurants, and other public places
Voting Rights Act
Created by: wm0397