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Science #1

Grades 5 to 8

Carnivore a consumer that eats only or mostly animals (meat)
Commensalism a relationship in which one kind of organism benefits and the other is not affected (no benefit, no harm)
Community all the populations of organisms living in an ecosystem
Competition the demand for a limited resource by two or more organisms.
Consumer an organism that gets energy by eating other organisms
Cycle a series of changes that happen over and over in the same way
Decomposer an organism that gets energy by breaking down waste materials and dead organisms
Ecologist a scientist who studies how living things interact with their environment.
Ecosystem all the living and nonliving things in an area
Endangered Species a group of living things that is in danger of disappearing, or becoming extinct
Energy the ability to make things more or change (the ability to do work)
Extinct no longer found living on Earth
Food Chain a model that shows the path of energy as it flows from one living thing to another
Food Web a model showing several food chains connected together
Habitat the place where a plant or animal lives
Herbivore a consumer that eats only or mostly plants
Interact to come into contact with and affect one another
Mutualism a relationship in which both organisms benefit
Omnivore a consumer that eats both plants and animals (meat).
Parasitism a relationship in which one kind of organism benefits, but the other is harmed
Photosynthesis the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use energy from sunlight to make their own food
Pollution Pollution the release of a harmful substance into the environment
Population a group of organisms of the same kind that live in an ecosystem
Predator an animal that hunts and kills other animals for food
Prey an animal that is hunted and killed by other animals for food
Producer an organism that makes its own food
Resource something that a living thing needs to stay alive
Scavenger a carnivore that eats animals that are already dead. (the animal was already dead when it found it)
Species A group of organisms that can mate with each other to produce offspring, or young
Survive To stay alive
Symbiosis A close relationship between two different species, or kinds, of living things
System A group of parts that work together
Threatened Species A group of living things that is likely to become endangered soon
Organism A living thing
Work Done when a force causes an object to move in the same direction the force was applied
Formula for Work Force x Distance
Units for Work Joules
Units for Force Newtons
Units for distance Meters
Simple machines can 1. They can change the amount of force required 2. They can change the distance the object has to move 3. They can change the direction (allowing you to work WITH gravity rather than against it)
4 types of simple machines lever pulley wheel and axle inclined plane
Lever Reduces the force required
Pulley Changes direction or amount of force required
Wheel and Axle Increases force, but distance is decreased
Inclined Plane Increase distance, but reduces the force required
Advantage of Simple Machines Make work seem easier!
Disadvantage of Using Simple Machines It increases the time to set up/use.
Mechanical Advantage of a ramp formula MA = slope/height How much force would be required to push a chair 22 m down the hall, doing a total of 88J of work? W= F x D 88J = F x 22m F = 4N
What is the height of the table if the inclined plane has a mechanical advantage of 4 and the length of the slope is 24 m? MA= slope/height 4 = 24m/h h = 6m
If a ramp has a mechanical advantage of 9, and it is 36 meters long, how high is it off of the ground? MA= slope/height 9 = 36m/h h = 4m
Potential Energy Stored energy due to an object’s position Amount of potential energy depends on height and mass of an object Higher elevation (height) = more potential energy More massive objects = more potential energy
Kinetic Energy Energy of motion Amount of kinetic energy depends on speed and mass of an object More speed an object has = more kinetic energy it has More massive objects = more kinetic energy
Energy transformation When one form of energy changes or converts to another form
Example of Energy Transformation Our bodies turn food into chemical energy
Thermal Energy Heat lamp
Sound Energy Bell or tuning fork
Mechanical Energy Using a hammer
Electrical Energy Light bulb or hybrid car
Chemical Energy Battery acid or fossil fuels
Stored Mechanical Energy Stretched rubber band
Light Energy Lamp or stars
Solar Energy Sun
Nuclear Energy Power plant or submarine or bomb
Geothermal Energy Volcanic eruption
Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it simply changes form
Fundamental Traits of Living Things: 1. Made of cell(s) 2. Has DNA 3. Able to reproduce 4. Grow & develop 5. Obtain & use energy 6. Respond to stimuli 7. Maintain homeostasis
Qualities of Earth that Enable it to Sustain Life 1. Distance from the sun 2. Earth’s unique atmosphere 3. Presence of water 4. Gravitational pull
The sun fuels... All life processes – all organisms get their energy from the sun somehow.
Lithosphere Earth’s crust (soil, rocks, minerals)
Hydrosphere Earth’s water
Atmosphere Gases in the air
Biosphere All living things
Functions of the Earth's Atmosphere 1, Greenhouse Effec: the gases in the atmosphere absorb heat emitted by the sun which warms the atmosphere 2, Protection from meteors
Mass Size of the object
Weight Amount of force gravity has on an object
Objects with more mass have more... Gravity
Without ______, photosynthesis we would not have oxygen and could not sustain life on Earth. Water
Largest planet with a Giant Red Spot Jupiter
Planet best known for its rings Saturn
Planet closest to the sun Mercury
The "Red Planet" Mars
Planet often called "The Morning Star" Venus
Who was the first to make extensive use of telescopes to study the heavens? Galileo
Who developed the reflecting telescope Newton
Who was the first human to walk on the moon? Neil Armstrong
Who was America's first astronaut in space? Alan Shepard
Who was the astronautical engineer who helped make the USA the leader in space exploration? Werner Von Braun
"The Father of Modern Rocketry" Robert Goddard
Who was the first American to orbit the earth? John Glenn
Any object that orbits a larger object in space Satellite
Light travels at __________miles per second. 186,000
How fast a wave oscillates Frequency
Inner planets Mercury. Venus, Earth, Mars
Outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
What was the first artificial object put into space? Sputnik
What was the first spacecraft designed to be reused? Space Shuttle
What space station is being developed by a group of 15+ nations? International Space Station
What was placed into orbit by a space shutter to aid astronomers in their studies of space? Hubble Space Telescope
Highest point of a wave Crest
Lowest point of a wave Trough
Created by: marybahner
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