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Modern America

VUS.8 Birth of Modern America

How did cattle get to market during the era of the American cowboy? Long cattle drives from the open range
What was the Homestead Act of 1862? Gave free public land in the western territories to settlers who lived on it for a minimum of 5 years
What two groups moved west seeking new opportunities after the Civil War? Southerners and African Americans
How did the transcontinental railroad affect westward movement? Provided transportation
What invention revolutionized farming and led to the wheat boom? mechanical reaper
What invention damaged the concept of the open range and made cattle distribution more difficult? barbed wire
Where did immigrants to America come from prior to 1871? Northern and Western Europe
Where did immigrants to America come from after 1871? Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia
Why did immigrants come to America? seeking opportunity and better lives for their families
What immigrant groups were responsible for the construction of the transcontinental railroad? Chinese and Irish
What immigrant groups worked in the coal mines of the East? Slavs, Poles and Italians
Where did European immigrants arrive to America to be processed? Ellis Island in New York
Where did Asian immigrants arrive to America to be processed? Angel Island in California
In what ways did immigrants work to assimilate into the American "melting pot?" Learned English, adopted American customs and became American citizens
What institution served an essential role in the process of assimilation? Public Schools
Why did immigrants often face hardship and hostility? Fear and resentment that immigrants would take jobs and prejudice based on religious and cultural differences
What was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882? Stopped immigration from China for 10 years and limited citizenship
What was the Emergency Quota Act of 1921? limited immigration to 3% from any given country
What cities grew rapidly as manufacturing and transportation centers? Chicago (meatpacking), Detroit (Automobiles), Pittsburgh (Steel), New York (fashion/finance), Cleveland (Oil)
What city constructed the first subway system? New York City
What was the Bessemer Process? A quicker and cheaper way of making steel
Who invented the light bulb and what company did he create? Thomas Edison, General Electric
Who invented the telephone and what company did he create? Alexander Graham Bell, AT&T
Who flew the first airplane? Wright Brothers
Who started the assembly line? Henry Ford
What industry was Andrew Carnegie captain of? Steel (Pittsburgh)
What industry was J.P. Morgan captain of? Banking (New York)
What industry was John D. Rockefeller captain of? Oil (Ohio)
What industry was Cornelius Vanderbilt captain of? Railroads
What is laissez-faire? The government was hands off businesses in America
What legalized segregation in the South after Reconstruction? Jim Crow Laws
What was the decision in Plessy v. Ferguson? The Supreme Court upheld that separate but equal did not violate the 14th Amendment and upheld Jim Crow segregation laws
What was the Great Migration? Mass exodus of African Americans from the South during the Jim Crow Era
Who was Ida B. Wells Barnett? Led an anti-lynching crusade
Who was Booker T Washington? Believed in vocational education (Tuskegee Institute) and economic success
Who was W.E.B. DuBois? Believed education was meaningless without political equality (NAACP)
What two presidents led progressive reform and what were their progressive plans called? Theodore Roosevelt (Square Deal) Woodrow Wilson (New Freedom)
Describe Gilded Age working conditions Dangerous, Child Labor, Long Hours, Low Wages, No Benefits, Company Towns
What was the goal of the Progressive Movement? Government controlled by the people, economic opportunities through government regulation and the elimination of social injustices
What were political progressive accomplishments on the local level? Creation of commissions to eliminate the power of political bosses
What were political progressive accomplishments on the state level? Initiative (citizens create laws) Referendum (State legislatures refer bills to citizens) Recall (Citizens remove corrupt politicans from office)
What were political progressive accomplishments on the national level? primary elections, secret ballot and the 17th amendment
What was the 17th Amendment? Direct election of U.S. Senators
Who was the founder of the American Federation of Labor? Samuel Gompers
Who was the Founder of the American Railway Union? Eugene Debs
Who was the founder of the Knights of Labor? Terrence Powderly
What union was the first nationwide industrial union? Knights of Labor
What three strikes became violent and ruined the reputation of labor unions? Haymarket Square, Homestead Strike, and Pullman Strike
Why were trade unions more successful than industrial unions? More specific, smaller, and practiced collective bargaining before striking
What was the Sherman Anti-Trust Act? Weak act that attempted to prevent monopolies from forming through the combination of businesses
What was the Clayton Anti-Trust Act? Outlawed price fixing and elimination of competition
Who led the women's suffrage movement? Susan B. Anthony
What was the 19th Amendment? Women's suffrage (right to vote)
What was the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Established by Wilson to enforce the Clayton Anti-Trust Act and set up fair-trade laws
What is an ethnic enclave? Immigrant neighborhoods based on home country of immigrants
What type of housing was available for immigrants? Overcrowded Tenement Housing
Created by: suireh
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