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small and long RNA

Advanced Genetics

QuestionAnswer
Antisense RNA Made from complementary DNA strand that sits opposite a protein-coding gene on the double helix.
What can antisense RNA do? They can intercept the messenger RNA transcribed from the gene, preventing the mRNA from being translated into protein.
RNAi used by eukaryotes to limit invasion of foreign genes. Triggered by double stranded RNA molecules. dsRNA are chopped by Dicer to make siRNA and miRNA.
Ribosome types found in bacteria and eukaryotes rRNA, mRNA, rRNA
Ribosome types found in eukaryotes snRNA.snoRNA,miRNA,siRNA,piRNA
Ribosome types only in prokaryotes crRNA
RNA located in the cytoplasm only rRNA and tRNA
rRNA function structural and functional components of the ribosome
RNA located in the nucleus and cytoplasm mRNA,miRNA,siRNA,piRNA
RNA located in the nucleus only snRNA, snoRNA
mRNA function carries genetics code for proteins
tRNA function Helps incorporate amino acids into polypeptide chains
snRNA function Processing of pre-mRNA
snoRNA function Processing and assembly of rRNA
miRNA funtion degradation of mRNA, inhibition of translocation, chromatin modification
siRNA function degradation of mRNA, inhibition of transcription, chromatin modifications
piRNA function suppresses the transcription of transposable elements in reproductive cells
crRNA function assists destruction of foreign DNA
RNA polymerases found in all eukaryotes RNA pol I, RNA pol II, RNA pol III
RNA polymerase only in plants RNA pol IV, RNA pol V
RNA pol I transcribes Larger rRNAs
RNA pol II transcribes Pre-mRNA, some snRNA, snoRNA, some miRNAs
RNA pol III transcribes tRNA. small rRNA, some snRNAs, some miRNA
RNA pol IV transcribes some siRNA
RNA pol V transribes RNA molecules taking part in heterochromatin formation
miRNA and gene silencing inverted DNA repeat, transcription, pri-miRNA with hair pin, cleaving of ends, add dicer, add Argo, creation of RISC, imperfect base pairing, inhibition of translation
siRNA and gene silencing dsRNA, add dicer, get siRNAs, add Argo, create RISC, perfect base pairing mRNA, cleavage and degradation
Origin of siRNA mRNA, transposons, or virus
Origin of miRNA RNA transcribed from distinct genes
siRNA comes from the cleavage of RNA duples or ssRNA that forms long hairpins
miRNA comes from the cleavage of ssRNA that forms short hairpins of dsRNA
How many nt is siRNA and miRNA? 21-25nt
siRNA targets genes from which they were transcribed
miRNA targets genes other than those from which they were transcribed
How many perfect base pairs do siRNA need? 7
lncRNA length larger than 200nt, open reading frame
lncRNA function Chromatin interaction, protein interaction, regulating other RNAs in relation to metabolism, very specific to a cell type. normally kept off through methylation and only turned on in certain circumstances
lncRNA and chromatin interation change shape of chromatin directly, recruit transcriptional regulators.
lncRNA and protein interaction modulate interaction if 2 proteins by binding to them. promote or prevent interaction
lncRNA and metabolism miR will bind to lncRNA therefore miR can't bind to mRNA and degrade it. can also help with stabilization and splicing.
X inactivation/silencing one X becomes barr body
Formation of barr body Xist is a lncRNA (17000nt), it coats the chromatin of the inactive X. Is regulated by Tsix
Tsix antisense to Xist, prevents Xist from coating active X.
Xist promotes H3K27me3 and other histone methylation and deacetlyation to create barr body. Polycomb proteins make Polycomb repressive complex helps H3K27me3 and deacetlyation. many CpG are methylated leading to permanent silencing of inactive X
RISC Induced silencing complex. argonaute protein
Piwi interacting RNAs 24-30nt, derived from long ssRNA, no dicer, piRNA and Piwi protein suppress the expression and movement of transposons in the germ cells of animals
crRNA Encoded my DNA sequences found in bacteria and archaeal genomes. clustered regularly interspaced short palindeomic repeats. role in defense against the invasion of specific foreign DNA
Created by: ejohnson17
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