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Industrial. & Reform

Industrial Revolution Era in which production of goods transitioned from homes to factories
Causes of Industrialization Natural resources/ demand for manufactured goods.
Effects of Industrialization Rise of working class/ growth and reform movements/ urbanization
Free Enterprise Freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulation, support or interference/ same as laissez faire/ led to a largely uncontrolled market/ protects private property, and supply & demand
Northern Economics Industrialization =factory jobs in cities/ pop. shift from rural to urban/ urban , poll, immigration (Irish), & child labor/ textile mills demanding cotton causes increase of slavery in south/ eco. grew due to lack of U.S. business reg./ wage for women
Southern Economics Warm climate and fertile soil allow for plantation system - slave system/ sustained cash crop (agrarian) economy
National Market Established due to improvements in transportation (boats, RRs, etc)/ shift in business and commerce from local to national level/ allowed for increases in goods and services
patent sole legal right to an invention and its profits
Cotton Gin 1794/ invented Eli Whitney/Jefferson approves patent/ cotton-cleaning process more efficient and quicker/ need larger work force/ expansion of slavery in the South/ southern plantations grow/ enabled cotton farmers to move west.
Steamboat Invented Robert Fulton/ steam new source of power/ increased factory production/ New Orleans and St. Louis grow because boat could move agricultural goods and people faster and over longer distances/ helps ag production
Interchangeable Parts Parts for devices made to be identical/ allows easy assembly of new devices/ efficient repair of existing devices/increased productivity
Bessemer Steel Process 1855/ first inexpensive industrial process for mass production of steel/ decreased the cost/ allowed increase in steel production and workforce.
Mechanical Reaper 1834/ Cyrus McCormick/ harvested wheat
Erie Canal 1825/ Man-made waterways used for travel and shipping/ allowed farmers in West to ship goods to NY, so NYC became center of commerce.
Railroads By 1890s/ U.S. becoming an urban nation/ RR supplied cities and towns nationwide with larger quantities of food, fuel, building materials, and access to markets/ negative effect on environment due to construction through mountains
Telegraph 1837/ invented Samuel Morse/ morse code to message/ telegraph lines followed railroads/ enhanced communication
Steel-tipped Plow 1837/ John Deere/ replaced wood
Hudson River School Paintings depict American landscape/ 19th Century themes including discovery, exploration, and settlement.
Transcendentalism 1800s/ transcendentalists believed in a perfect world "Utopian society"/ find peace in NATURE/ transcendentalists include Henry David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, Edgar Allen Poe, Herman Melville
Henry David Thoreau Transcendentalist/ protested taxes because gov’t. continued to allow war and slavery/ author “Civil Disobedience” essay encouraging citizens to not break the law but rather challenge the law/ influenced MLK, Jr.
Second Great Awakening Religious revivals/ loud and high energy/ revealed growing regional and social differences/ brought about reform movements.
Frederick Douglass African-American abolitionist/ spoke and wrote about his early life as a slave/ Newspaper Editor for anti-slavery publication The North Star.
Harriet Tubman Slave who helped other slaves escape via the Underground Railroad/ U.R. series of escape routes from South to the North. Slaves would travel by foot, wagons, boats, and trains/ "Conductor" of U.R.
Harriet Beecher Stowe author of anti-slavery publication Uncle Tom’s Cabin/ play that showed slavery was wrong.
William Lloyd Garrison Published the anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator in Boston
Women’s Rights Movement 1st convention in Seneca Falls, NY/ fought for better working conditions for women/ federal law that ordered a 10 hour working day/ reform efforts did not achieve voting rights, but did shorten the workday.
Susan B. Anthony Key spokesperson for the 19th century women's suffrage movement/ co-author of The Revolution (weekly publication) with Stanton
Lucretia Mott leading voice of abolitionist and feminist movement/ author Discourse on Women arguing for equal economic opportunity and voting rights
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Leader of 19th century women's suffrage movement / led first convention of women’s movement in Seneca Falls/ author "Declaration of Sentiments" (argues for women’s equality)/ heightened class and regional differences
Public Education Reform 0pen public schools primarily in the North as well as private grade schools and colleges by churches
Horace Mann free education/ funded with tax dollars/ trained teachers/ extends school year/ curriculum improves
Temperance Movement Societies worked at trying to stop the drinking of alcohol/ prohibition law - some states (Maine 1st) passed laws that made it illegal to sell alcohol/ women eager to join & expand / Daughters of Temperance & Women's Christian Temperance Union 2 examples
Prison Reform Pushed for separate jails for women, men, and children/ called for the mission of prisons to rehabilitate
Care of the Disabled Building of new hospitals for the mentally ill, deaf and blind/ activist Dorothea Dix
Capitalist person who opens a business to make a profit/ prices decided by business owner NOT government
Know-Nothing Party Anti-Catholic & Anti-immigrant political party/ felt immigrants from Europe would threaten eco. and political security of native-born Protestants
Francis Cabot Lowell Opened water-powered textile mills/ created a sense of "community" around factories - churches, libraries, banks, etc.
Lowell Girls Lived in boarding houses located near factory jobs/ 12 hour days/ 6 days a week
Spinning Jenny 1764/ James Hargreaves/ allowed a worker to spin several threads at once rather than just one thread at a time.
Created by: pdelam4
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