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Middle Ages

Pre-AP Global

500-1500 BCE, began with the fall of western Europe, time period between Roman Empire and European Renaissance. Middle Ages/Medieval Times.
First five hundred years of Middle Ages, marked by chaos, violence, disorder, and dis-unification. Early Middle Ages/Dark Ages.
Second five hundred years of the Middle Ages, marked by first signs of recovery, urbanization and economic growth. High Middle Ages.
Decentralized political system based on the exchange of land for military loyalty. Feudalism.
Economic system of self-sufficiency where the peasants work on lords' land. Manorialism.
Barbaric, Germanic tribe in France, for a short time successful at unifying much of western Europe during the Dark Ages. Franks.
Charles "The Hammer", Frankish leader who defended France from invading Muslims. Charles Martel.
Ruled the Franks (481-511), first Frankish king to conquer Gaul from the Romans. Clovis.
Known as the most successful Dark Ages King, king of the Franks, crowned "Emperor of the west" by the Pope on Christmas day 800 CE. Charlemagne.
Raiding tribes from Scandinavia who invaded English and Irish lands. Vikings.
Charlemagne's secret police force/spies who monitored the lords throughout his lands. Missi Dominici.
Division of Europe along linguistic and cultural lines following Charlemagne and his son, Louis the Pious', deaths. Treaty of Verdun.
Noblemen who controlled land and owed loyalty and military support to the king. Lords.
Lesser lords who received land, known as fiefs, from lords who in turn owed loyalty and military support to their lords. Vassals.
Medieval warriors mounted on horseback, owed loyalty and military support to the kings and lords, could become vassals by accepting fiefs. Knights.
Peasant workers and farmers, bound to the land of their lord's medieval manor. Serfs.
Exchange of goods for goods instead of trade based on currency. Barter.
Tool developed in 800 which allowed for more farm production. Iron plow.
Systems of farmers using crop rotation, developed in 800's, increased farm production. Three field system.
Strict rules of poverty, chastity, and obedience of the medieval Christian monks. The Benedictine Rule.
Head of the Roman Catholic Church. Pope.
Regional authority figures in the Roman Catholic Church. Bishop.
Local authority figures in the Roman Catholic Church. Priests.
Head monks in Roman Catholic monasteries. Abbots.
Men who dedicated their lives for religious work for the Roman Catholic Church. Monks.
Wandering orders of monks who spread out to spread Roman Catholicism. Missionaries.
Rules of moral behavior and conduct for members of the clergy. Canon Law.
To be expelled from the Roman Catholic Church and its sacraments. Excommunication.
The excommunication of an entire community or manor. Interdict.
Collection of medieval manor lands and kingdoms under the reign of Charlemagne, later became dis unified. Holy Roman Empire.
Document King John of England was forced to sign in 1215, which limited the king's power and granted feudal rights to citizens of England. Magna Carta.
Law making body of noblemen and clergy that developed in England in the 1200's. Parliament.
Territorial dispute between England and France during the 1300's and 1400's. Hundred Years' War.
A series of holy wars fought between Christians and Muslims over Jerusalem and the holy land. Crusades.
Muslim general during the 1100's and the Crusades, known for his regards for humanity and empathy for his enemy. Saladin.
Medieval organization of merchants and trading companies for mutual protection and to set standards of trade in the High Middle Ages, mainly located in northern Europe. Hanseatic League.
Associations of tradesmen and craftsmen in Medieval towns in order to set industry standards and for mutual support, developed in High Middle Ages. Guilds.
The charging of interest for the use of loaned money. Usury.
Attacks on Jewish populations, using mobs of anti-Semitics. Pogroms.
Academic field of study which seeks to bridge the gap between faith and reason, became a course of studies in Medieval universities run by the Catholic Church. Scholasticism.
Everyday spoken languages of ordinary people. Vernacular languages.
Medieval Italian literature based on the religious concepts of good and evil, heaven and hell. Divine Comedy.
Book written by Saint Thomas Aquinas on scholasticism. Summa Theologica.
Medieval English literature based on a fictional group making a religious pilgrimage. Canterbury Tales.
Medieval architecture of Catholic churches characterized by tall spires and flying buttresses. Gothic cathedrals.
Rebirth of Greco-Roman culture at the end of the Middle Ages in western Europe. Renaissance.
Eastern Roman Empire after the collapse of Rome, constantly battled Muslims, fell to Ottoman Turks in 1453. Byzantine Empire.
Section of Christianity which developed in the Byzantine Empire. Eastern Orthodoxy.
Persian Empire located to the east of the Byzantine Empire, political threat to the Byzantines. Sassanid Empire.
Ruler of Byzantine Empire, and his wife, known for Golden Age achievements in Constantinople and the expansion of the empire. Justinian and Theodora.
Church of Holy Wisdom built by Justinian in Constantinople. Hagia Sophia.
Best known as "Justinian's Code", a law code comprised of adaptions of older Roman laws, greatly influenced Medieval European laws. Corpus Iuris Civilis.
Writing system which was invented by Byzantine Christian missionaries in order to translate the Bible into Slavic languages. Cyrillic Alphabet.
Created by: emarciante9
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