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World History chpt15

Age of reason

Scientific Method Steps Question, Observation, Experimentation, Conclusion, Verification
Scientific Tools telescopes, microscopes, thermometer, barometer
Rationalism belief that reason is the method of gaining knowledge and the only source of truth
Nicolaus Copernicus creator of heliocentric theory
Johannes Kepler discovered elliptical orbits of the planets
Galileo Galilei Physics: pendulum, time Astronomy: improved telescope
Isaac Newton Prism; Laws of Gravity-Principia
Andreas Vesalius studied human anatomy
Edward Jenner smallpox and cowpox vaccination
Robert Boyle author of Law of Inverse Gas Pressure
Joseph Priestley Chemical discoveries: ammonia, oxygen, "laughing gas", etc.
Antoine Lavoisier Father of Modern Chemistry, wrote Law of Conservation and matter
Inductive Reasoning Observation and experimentation used to form tentative conclusions, verify results, and generalize conclusions-SPECIFIC TO GENERAL
Sir Francis Bacon Advocate of Inductive reasoning: all knowledge should be questioned
Deductive reasoning Reason should be assisted by mathematics to guide reason; doubt everything
Rene Descartes Advocate of Deductive Reasoning: "I doubt therefore i thing; I think therefore i am"
Dualism 2 realities, mind and matter
Baruch Spinoza Advocate of Pantheism
Pantheism everything in the universe is part of one substance called "god"; spiritual and physical are not distinct
John Locke Empiricist; wrote on mans natural rights : life, liberty, property
Empiricism Philosophy: "All knowledge comes through experience"
Montesquieu wrote on separation of powers
Voltaire Wrote of religious tolerance; separation of church and state
Denis Diderot Complied Encyclopedie; opposed by French government and Catholic church
Jean Jacques Russeau Wrote of the Social Contract; Father of Romanticism
Romanticism Emotion over reason
Deism God is the "Grand Architect"; God creates the world then steps back and watches, never intervenes
Pietism spiritual awakening in Germany; emphasis on christian fellowship
van Leeuwenhoek inventor of microscope
John Wesley began methodist movement:circuit preacher in England
George Whitfield English; preached in america and england
Jonathan Edwards American pastor; known for sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an angry God"
heliocentric theory the theory that the planes orbit around the sun



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