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US History Unit 6

A Nation Divided 1850-1865 Vocab

TermDefinition
The Wilmot Proviso any land acquired from Mexico slavery will not be allowed
Popular Sovereignty allows each new state to decide for itself if it would allow slavery
Free-Soil Party opposed slavery in the west, keep jobs for free men, show division in politics
Election of 1848 Zachary Taylor elected president-divided Democratic Party
Compromise of 1850 keeps America intact for the moment
Fugitive Slave Act capture and return escaped slaves
Uncle Tom's Cabin a book that changed how Northerners felt about slavery-it made African American people and slavery evil
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) repealed Missouri Compromise and creates territories of Kansas & Nebraska
Bleeding Kansas Kansas becomes a battle ground, 2 governments established
Emancipation Fact or process of being set free from slavery
Civil Rights Rights of citizens to political and social equality and freedom
Abolition The action of ending a system or practice
Expansion Making the borders of a nation larger so as to include more land
Slavery In United States history: a system of bondage where African Americans were forced to work for owners for no pay
Federal Central government of the United States - three branches (including executive, legislative, judicial)
Sectionalism Different lifestyles, social structures, customs, and political values of the North, and South
States Rights Rights of the states in comparison to the power of the federal government
Dred Scott v. Sandford(1857) Supreme Court ruled African Americans, free or slave, are not protected by the constitution
John Brown's Raid John Brown attempts to promote a slave uprising, armed enslaved Africans at Harper's Ferry
Civil War-1861-1865 North, The Union Advantages-population 22 million, industry= more supplies, better navy, transportation(railroads), Lincoln holds things together Disadvantages-political differences(Democrats/Republicans disagree over the war), draft=riots of NYC 1863 must defeat south
Civil War-1861-1865 South, The Confederates Advantages-military tradition(military schools), motivated soldiers, better generals, homeland(most of war fought in south) Disadvantages-smaller population(9 million), lack of transportation, lack of money, weak central government
The Battle of Bull Run July 21, 1961, first major battle of the Civil War
The Naval War The Chain, union blockade of major Southern ports, New Orleans falls
War in the West The Saw, Ulysses S. Grant cuts Tennessee in 1/2, attacks river positions -Battle of Shiloh-Union victory, 20,000 casualities
War in the East To Seize, battle to capture Richmond, Va -7 Days Battle-union forced to retreat, heavy casualties, 30,000 -2nd Battle of Bull Run-South forced to retreat
Battle of Antienam Lee invades the North, Bloodies day in American history( union won, but 22,000 casualties)
The Emancipation Proclamation (1863) freed only slaves in rebellious states
The Battle of Gettysburg South lost 28,000 men, no longer able to win the war
Gettysburg Address (1863) a remembrance of those that gave their lives "all men are created equal" the war was a fight for freedom and greater good
13th Amendment (1865) Ends slaver in the U.S.
Reconstruction formal rebuilding of the south after the war and terms of southern reinstatement to the USA
Lincoln's Plan (The 10% Plan) -pardon to all -when 10% of 1860 voters had pledged an oath to the Union, that state could organize
Radical Republicans led by Thaddeus Stevens -Prevent Confederacy leaders from keeping power after the war -Republican power in the South -Protect and provide African Americans the right to vote
Freedmen's Bureau (1865) -Job training, food/clothing for refugees in South -4000 schools built -100 hospitals
Black Codes (1865) laws specifically designed to limit the rights of African Americans
Civil Rights Act of 1866 -all people born in the U.S. are citizens -African Americans can own property -African Americans must be treated equally in court -U.S. government can sue those that violate this law.
14th Amendment (1868) -citizenship to all born or naturalized in America(overrule Dred Scott Case) -No state can deny "life, liberty or property" without "due process" of the law -No state can deny "equal protection of the law"
Military Reconstruction Act (1867) -divided the south into 5 military districts -develop a new state constitution -must allow all males to vote, regardless of race -states must pass the 14th Amendment-before members elected to Congress
Election of 1868 -Johnson doesn't seek reelection -Ulysses S. Grant runs for Republicans -Grans wins-winning 6 Southern states
15th Amendment (1870) -Gave the right to vote to male African Americans -Voting can't be denied based upon "race, color, or previous servitude."
carpetbaggers northerners that moved south following the war, some were trying to help, some were not so nice
scalawags southerners that voted republican
The Ku Klux Klan wanted to drive out Union Troops, carpetbaggers, and return the South to control of the Democratic Party, used fear to prevent African Americans and white republicans from voting
The Compromise of 1877 -Hayes (Republican) vs. Tilden(Democrat) both fail to receive enough electoral votes to become president -Congress investigates and finds election fraud -Compromise=Hayes becomes president and Union troops removed from the South Reconstruction ends
sharecroppers paid their rent with a share of the crops they harvested; many failed due to high interest rates and borrowed money to cover the costs of seed and other supplies
tenant farmers rented land to farm
dept peonage sharecroppers trapped by their dept-forced labor or prison time
impeach to formally charge an official with misconduct in office
amnesty an official pardon for people who have been convicted of political offenses.
pocket veto an indirect veto of a legislative bill by the president or a governor by retaining the bill unsigned until it is too late for it to be dealt with during the legislative session
sin tax a tax on items considered undesirable or harmful, such as alcohol or tobacco
Popular Soverneignty a system in which the residents vote to decide an issue
Secession the formal withdrawal of a state from the union
Underground Railroad a system of routes along which runaway slaves were helped to escape to Canada or to safe areas in the free states
Transcontinental Railroad a railroad line linking the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States, completed in 1869
referendum a procedure by which a proposed legislative measure can be submitted to a vote of people
insurrection a violent uprising against an authority or government
confederacy the Confederate States of America, a confederation formed in 1861 by the Southern states after their secession from the union.
Martial Law temporary rule by military rather than civilian authority
Created by: Mrs.Ingerick