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sports med

TermDefinition
The major ligaments the anterior and posterior longitudinal.
Five vertebrae are located where lumbar spine.
Anatomy of a disk includes annulus fibrosis (outer ring) and nucleus pulposus (inner ring).
what is the Intervertebral disks designed to do absorb shock
The sacrum consists of five fused vertebrae.
Right and left sacroiliac (SI) joints are formed by the union of the sacrum and pelvis.
is most distal portion of the vertebral column. Coccyx
is a stress fracture in the neural arch Spondylolysis
A serious form of soft tissue injury is a herniated disk.”
Most commonly occurs at L4 or L5. Herniation results from a weakened annulus that allows nucleus pulposus to protrude through the wall of the annulus.
Thoracic spine is composed of 12 vertebrae that articulate with the cervical and lumbar spines.
Thoracic cage has 12 pairs of ribs. The first 7 pairs connect directly to sternum. Pairs 8 through 10 connect via common costal cartilage. Pairs 11 and 12 are “floating ribs.”
Vertebral Fractures Compression fracture to vertebral body or Spinous process fracture Usually involved significant soft tissue disruption too
How does vertebral fracture occur they can result from either a direct blow to the posterior thorax or extreme flexion of the thoracic spine.
The ribs commonly fracture near the anatomic angle, which is the weakest point.
Strains: Involve contractile tissue and their support structures, Related to maximal exertions and overuse.
Right Upper Liver, gallbladder, and right kidney.
Right Lower: Appendix and ascending colon.
Left Upper Stomach, spleen, left kidney
Left Lower: Descending colon.
Commotio cordis Athlete is hit in the chest and the impact is timed exactly with the repolarization phase of the contracting heart, it is possible for the athlete to experience ventricular fibrillation leading to death.
Pulmonary contusions may occur as complication of rib or sternum fracture or other type of lung injury.
Fractured rib can puncture pleural sac pneumothorax (air into sac causing collapsed lung). Hemothorax occurs when fractured rib punctures lung (air and blood collapses lung)
The kidneys are located posteriorly and somewhat inferiorly on each side of the abdomen
Kidneys may also be injured as a result of heat illness or overuse of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories.
The spleen serves as a reservoir for red blood cells.
It is important to review each athlete’s medical history very closely to determine what? if a cardiac or respiratory condition may be present.
The bones of the arm are the humerus , radius and ulna
Flexion Bicep curl
Extension Tricep extension
Pronation Turning palm down
Supination Turning palm up
FOOSH Injury mechanism is usually falling on an outstretched hand.
Sprains result from both valgus and varus forces that occur as the arm is trapped in a vulnerable position like overhead pitching. They may also occur from falling backwards.
Happens after direct trauma Contusion
Occurs after a blow to the olecranon process (pointy part of elbow).
The bones of the wrist are radius, ulna and 8 carpal
Most common wrist fractures involve scaphoid bone.
Most common fractures occur to 5th metacarpal (Boxer’s Fracture), 1st metacarpal (Bennett’s Fracture), and distal phalanges.
occurs after hitting something ex. helmet, person or wall Bennett's fracture. Unique to the thumb ( 1st metercarpals
Mechanism includes blows with a clenched fist. Boxer’s Fracture.involves 4th and/or 5th metacarpal bone(s) near the proximal end(s).
involves a sprain of the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb. Gamekeeper’s thumb. Mechanism of injury is a valgus force to the MP joint of the thumb.
History of an appropriate injury mechanism. Pain and swelling over the area of the ulnar collateral ligament (MP joint). Gamekeeper’s Thumb
Involves the tearing away of a finger flexor tendon Jersey Finger. Mechanism of injury involves catching the finger in an opponent’s clothing.
Bones of the shoulder Clavicle Scapula Humerus Manubrium Sterni
Injuries that stretch this nerve are commonly known as stingers.”
Most common fracture in the shoulder region. This injury usually results from a fall or direct blow.
GH joint consists of the humeral head and the glenoid fossa of scapula. Typical mechanism of injury is having the arm abducted and externally rotated, stressing the anterior glenohumeral ligament.
Impingement Occurs when a bursa or tendon is squeezed between moving structures.
rotator cuff strain. Errors in the execution of a throw or swing can contribute to overuse injury. Concentric force (shortening) development followed by eccentric loading (lengthening) of RC muscles during deceleration and follow-through cause most injuries.
Created by: mathias67