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Government Final Voc

Define Government. The people and institutions with authority to establish and enforce laws and public policy. (6)
What are public policies? Any concerns of public action directed towards achieving a national goal. (6)
Divine Right Theory- belief in God that royalty’s right to rule comes from God (8)
Social Contract Theory- An agreement among the members of a society to create a state and obey its government. (8)
Confederation- A form of government in which 2 or more states come together to achieve a common goal but retain their individual sovereignty in other matters 12.
Federalism - political authority is divided between a national (or federal govt) and its political subdivision (states) * some power is shared/some is denied
Delegated Powers (Where are they located & Examples). The power specifically granted to the national government in the Constitution *(Ex: enumerated, expressed) Found in the Constitution Leg. Congress (write laws, coin $, grant patents, declare war) Exe. Pres (appoint and receive ambassadors) Judicial
Reserved Powers (Where are they located & Examples). Powers set aside for the states’ government by Constitution (the national government cannot interfere with them).
Concurrent Powers (& examples). Powers possessed by both the national and state government, (taxing, establishing courts, regulating elections).
What is Article I Section 8 of the Constitution? What’s its purpose? Leg.Powers of Govt: Article I, Section 8, specifies the powers of Congress in great detail. These powers are limited to those listed and those that are "necessary and proper" to carry them out. All other lawmaking powers are left to the states.
Autocracy- a single individual holds both political power and authority
Monarchy- a form of autocracy in which power in inherited from family members.
Constitutional Monarchy- a form of government in which the monarch is mainly a ceremonial head of state and shares authority with an elected legislature.
Dictatorship- a form of autocracy in which a ruler acquires and maintains leadership through fear & force.
Oligarchy- a form of government in which a small group of people have the power
Democracy- government ruled by the people
Direct Democracy- a form of government in which all citizens have a chance to participate on a first-hand basis.
Representative Democracy- a form of government in which people elect a group of citizens to represent them in making laws and establishing public policies.
Totalitarian Rule- is a political system in which the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible, without any respect for human rights.
Republic- government in which people exercise their power through elected officials
Popular Sovereignty- it the people’s rule
What amendments expanded popular sovereignty? 15th (African Americans get the right to vote) 17th (Women’s Suffrage “ ” ) 24th (Abolition of Poll Taxes) 26th (Voting age to 18)
Limited government- The idea that a government may only use the powers given to it by the people.
Separation of Powers- The division of authority among the three branches- Executive, Legislative, and Judicial- to ensure a balance of power.
Montesquieu Frenchman that proposed the separation of powers: The Three Branches of Govt (Executive, Legislative, Judicial). Wrote: The Spirit of the Laws (63).
Civil liberties- personal rights of citizens such as freedom of speech, thought and action, as guaranteed by the First Amendment (19, 142).
Civil rights- the right of every citizen to be treated equally under the law and to have equal opportunity
With regard to citizenship, what is the intent of the 14th amendment? 1st def. of American citizenship. Give newly freed blacks the rights of American citizens. Grants citizenship with no exceptions. “All persons born or naturalized in the US....are citizens of the US and of the State wherein they reside.”
Dual citizenship- Each country has its own citizenship laws on its own policy.
Jus soli- (“right of the land”) born on US soil
Jus sanguinis- (“right through blood”)- not born with in the US but born to parents who are US citizens.
Naturalization- Legal process by which a person becomes a citizen of another country at some time after birth.
Collective naturalization- large group of people are granted citizenship at the same time.
What rights are reserved for US Citizens? The first 10 Amendments to the Constitution (The Bill of Rights). Designed to protect citizens' "unalienable rights" or natural rights, such as the freedom of religion, the freedom of speech and the due process of law.
What is the Preamble to the Constitution? The opening statement to the United States Constitution. The preamble explains the reasons why the Framers of the Constitution made our government a republic. By doing this, the founding fathers replaced the Articles of Confederation.
What are the 3 Branches of Government? What is the Purpose of each? Legislature: makes law Executive: enforce laws Judicial: Decide Laws
Supremacy Clause- The clause in the United States Constitution’s Article Vl, stating that all laws made furthering the Constitution and all treaties made under the authority of the United States are “ supreme law of the land”
What are two ways to propose an amendment? An amendment is proposed by 2/3 vote of both houses of Congress 2/3 of the states can ask Congress to call a special convention to propose an amendment
What is judicial review? Where did the concept come from? -review by the US Supreme Court of the constitutional validity of a legislative act. The Supreme Court Case Marbury v. Madison established judicial review.
What are two ways to ratify an amendment? Amendment is ratified by 3/4 of the state legislatures. Amendment is ratified by 3/4 of the state conventions.
How many amendments are there? 27
Explain the 6 principles of the Constitution: popular sovereignty separation of powers checks and balances Federalism supremacy of national laws civilian control of the government
Identify the length of term in office and minimum age required to obtain office for: Senator- 6 years, 30 year age requirement Member of the House of Rep. 2 year terms 25 years of age required President- 4 years, up to 8 if elected again, 35 years old Supreme Court Justices- appointed for life until they die or resign
What is the presidential chain of succession? President→ Vice President→ Speaker of the House
What role do the House of Representatives and the Senate play in the impeachment of federal officials? Only members of the house of representatives can impeach officials. Senate does not have that power.
Define the president pro tempore. What role do they play in Senate when the Vice-President is absent? 2nd highest-ranking official of the US Senate. The Constitution provides that the VPres. is the Pres. of the Senate, and they must choose a president to act in the VP's absence. He is an elected member of the Senate, able to speak or vote on any issue.
What is the electoral college and what is the problem with it? Group of electors that elects the Pres and the VP. State gets a certain number of elect. votes based on its pop. Prob: The loser of the popular vote can win the electoral vote. Prob: Candidates don't campaign in states they know they can’t win or ca
How are electoral college delegates apportioned (assigned)? Each state is allocated a number of electors equal to the number of its U.S. Senators (always two) plus the number of its U.S. House of Rep. (which may change each decade according to the size of each state's population as determined in the census).
What are the five basic freedoms found in the 1st Amendment? Right to speech, religion, assembly, press and petition
Establishment clause- the clause in the First Amendment of the US Constitution that prohibits the establishment of an official religion by Congress.
Free exercise clause- Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.
Engel v. Vitale (1962) - prayers in schools violate the establishment clause of the 1st Amendment, civil liberties
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)- police must inform suspects of their rights when arrested under the 5th Amendment, right to remain silent,...
Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) - affirmed 1st Amendment rights of kids in school. The school district violated students’ free speech rights when they wore black armbands to protest war –
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