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American History

Final Review

Reasons why Europeans explored the world to search for trade routes to Asia, slave labor, gold, and colonies
Virginia colony city Jamestown
Plymouth Pilgrims and Mayflower
Pennsylvania Home of the Quakers seeking religious freedom
English colonists belief right to govern themselves, valued education, religion, and work
Indentured servant someone who contracts to work for a colonist for a certain number of years in exchange for food, clothing, shelter, and transportation to the colonies
Middle passage often a deadly voyage for African Americans across the Atlantic Ocean
John Locke an Enlightenment thinker who believed that some revolution against the King was okay. Believed that all people have rights and that society can be improved.
Causes of the French Indian War both Britain and France wanted the Ohio River Valley
Results of the French Indian War no French power in North America & the want for the colonies to join together
British: Sugar Act colonies said, "no taxation without representation"
British: Stamp Act (tax on printed materials) colonies (Sons of Liberty) began the Townshead Act-tax on imports-and began to organize against the British
Declaration of Independence a document created by Continental Congress in 1776 saying that the 13 colonies were now independent from Britian
Strengths/Weaknesses of Colonists v. British Colonists: poor army British: well trained, big army
Lexington and Concord Paul Revere warned, "The British are coming!" The British attacked Concord's supply depot-US won
Bunker Hill US on the hill, British attacked. "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes." Battle ended as a tie.
Trenton Washington crossed the Delaware River and attacked the British-US won
Saratoga British: Burgoyne & Iroquois US: Benedict Arnold US won
Yorktown British: Cornwallis & Benedict Arnold (traitor) US: Washington US won and the war ended
Weakness of the Articles of Confederation Could not impose taxes or regulate trade
Writing the Constitution Plan=The Great Compromise
Federalists v. Anti-Federalists Federalists: used the Constitution to form the government Anti-Federalists: opposed the Constitution
3 branches of government legislative, executive, judicial
System of Checks and Balances stopped any one branch of government from getting too much power
Bill of Rights summary of fundamental rights and privileges guaranteed to people
Hamilton v. Jefferson Hamilton: Federalist, wanted a strong federal government Jefferson: Democratic-Republican, supported farmers
George Washington 1st President, served 2 terms, wanted the US to stay neutral in world affairs so they could avoid war
Lousiana Purchase land deal between France and the US-US got muck land west of the Mississippi River for $15 million
Causes of the War of 1812 trade restrictions, British taking American cargoes, and Britain taking American soldiers into their Navy by force
Results of the War of 1812 Andrew Jackson became a hero and the feeling of nationalism (pride in US) became very strong
1812: Ft. McHenry Francis Scott Key wrote the poem that inspired the "Star Spangled Banner"
1812: New Orleans Jackson defended New Orleans against the British
Tariff a tax on imported or exported goods
Sectionalism being more concerned with your own region or area than the country/nation as a whole
Monroe Doctrine said that Europe could no longer settle in the US or interfere with the US
New Transportation roads and turnpikes were created and steamboats made river travel easier
Industrial Revolution/Manufacturing in New England large machines, factories, and the system of interchangeable parts made work faster and easier. Textile (clothing) mills were popular in New England
Slavery in the South Slavery was popular in the south because there were many cotton plantations and tobacco farms for slaves to work on
Indian removal Jackson's plan to give money native Americans for moving to reservations
Andrew Jackson president people could relate to because he stood for federal authority
Spoils system replacing government employees with workers who supported the winning candidate
Whig party formed to oppose Jackson and his party (William Henry Harrison and John Tayler
Immigration German and Irish immigrants traveled to the US looking for new lives and freedom
Nativism hostility (bad feelings) toward immigrants
Women's Movement women wanted more involvement in society and politics-not just stay at home with the kids
Temperance no alochol
Abolitionists people who wanted to end slavery
Manifest Destiny destiny of America to spread from coast to coast
Causes of Mexican-American War Annexation of Texan and dispute over the border with Texas
Effects of Mexican-American War Mexico gave 500,000 miles of territory to US which made the Manifest Destiny (US now went from ocean to ocean)
Fugitive Slave Act African Americans could be returned to owners-$10.00 if witness sided with slave owner, $5 for siding with slave
Kansas Nebraska Act allowed people in territories to decide if they wanted slavery-repealed Missouri Compromise
Election of Abraham Lincoln this event begins the secession of the southern states
Strengths of North during Civil War strong navy, large population, manufacturing, railroads
Strengths of South during Civil War trained officers, fighting on own land
Weakness of South during Civil War had no funding for war
Eastern theater of Civil War 7 Days Battle and Battle of Bull Run were here
Western theater Shiloh and Murfreesboro
Total War Sherman totally destroyed all things-totally destroyed roads, town, people's things
Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln freed slaves in states at war with the union
Lincoln and Constitution 13th Amendment banned slavery
Reconstruction Rebuilding after the Civil War
Radical Republicans Wanted to revolutionize Southern institutions, habits and manners. They were against Lincoln.
Black Codes Laws passed in South after Civil War to limit the rights of African Americans
Sharecropping Work for equipment and food instead of money
end of reconstruction During this time the following things happened; economic depression, loss of Republican seats in the House, election of Hayes
Homestead act 160 acres and a title for the land after 5 years-encouraged settlers to move west
Transcontinental Railroad Union Pacific and Central Railroads joined on May 10, 1869, at Promontory summit, Utah-many Irish and Chinese worked on it, took 4 years
Conflicts with Native Americans settlers moved onto their lands, Dakota uprising, Battle of Little Bighorn
Laissez Faire let the people do as they chose, government should not interfere
2nd Industrial Revolution big jump in technology at the end of the 1800s (19th century) this is when telegraph, railroads, gas lines, water lines, sewer, and electrical lines were added
Trusts a group of companies form this to reduce competition
Unions used by workers to bargain for higher wages and better working hours-companies don't like unions
Urbanization Rapid growth of urban areas, people moving to cities, US became more urban than rural after Civil War
Jim Crow Laws laws that enforced discrimination
Political machines a political group who tried to keep power by giving city people the services they need in exchange for votes
Political reforms attempted to make the government more responsive to citizens needs resulted in use of direct primaries, initiatives, and referendums
Muckrakers journalists who investigated bad social conditions and political corruption
Because of the strength of the federal government resulting from the progressive movement the people expected the federal government to solve social problems and regulated the economy
Successes of the progressive movement eliminated child labor, federal government monitored business
Failure of the progressive movement did not address racial and religious discrimination
Causes of the Spanish-American War yellow journalist, cuban struggles against Spain, US wants more colonies
Open door policy increased American Trade, allowed all countries to trade with China
"Big Stick" Diplomacy Negotiate by speaking nicely but always using military threat in the background
MAIN causes of WWI Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand killed while in Bosnia by a Bosnian Revolutionary-started WWI
Trench warfare both sides dig trenches, used barbed wire between sides and machine guns to shoot soldiers leaving the trenches
US Homefront increased food production (victory gardens), conserved energy, bonds sold to raise money for war, workers cooperated
Espionage Acts 1917-made it illegal to aid the enemy, give false information, or interfere with war
Sedition Acts 1917-made it illegal to speak against the war publicly, could not criticize government
US didn't like bolsheviks because they opposed capitalism
End of WWI happened when Germans retreated after the Battle of Argonne, Revolution and independence in Austria-Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, German navy quit, German emperor quit.
Failures of the Versailles Treaty Poland and Czechoslovakia made up mostly of Germans, no free seas or trade, colonies still existed, punished Germans severly
13th Amendment abolished slavery
14th Amendment all people born or naturalized are US citizens (former slaves)
15th Amendment African American males have the right to vote
16th Amendment Right to have income
17th Amendment direct election of citizens
18th Amendment banned alcohol (prohibition)
19th Amendment Women's right to vote
Marbury v. Madison allowed the supreme court to declare laws unconstitutional
Dred Scott African Americans were not citizens and could not sue, slavery could not be regulated in territories
Plessy v. Ferguson States could segregate
Created by: alewandowski